Hyperloop transportation system

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HYPERLOOP TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMPRESENTED BY:M.SAI MANIKANTAB TECH,NIT CALICUTIt is new mode of transport other than road, rail, air , water.Hyper loop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are transported at both low and high speeds throughout the length of the tube.It was proposed by Elon Musk CEO of TESLA MOTORS and SPACEX and Co-founder of PAY-PALA high-levelalpha designfor the system was published on August 12, 2013, in a whitepaper posted to the Tesla and SpaceX blogsIt is an high speed train transporting at a speed of 800mph which is twice the speed of a commercial plane.Elon Musk didnt even patented the design quoting see if people

WHAT IS HYPERLOOP TRANSPORTATION? find ways to improve it. It will be an open source design anyone can access it.A Hyperloop would be "an elevated, reduced-pressure tube that contains pressurized capsules driven within the tube by a number oflinear electric motors.

Hyperloop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are transported at both low and high speeds throughout the length of the tube.

Due to high traffic US government proposed a high speed train project between San Francisco to Los Angeles called California High Speed Rail with $68.4 Billion USD.The average speed is 164mph and takes approx 3 hours.Estimated cost of Hyperloop is $7.8 billion USD and takes 35 mins to cover same distance.In past Robert Goddard proposed using vacuum as medium of transport there by attain speed without high friction losses but theres lot of possibility of leaks . And when there is a leak it will damage the whole system.Elon Musk thought of overcoming it with maintaing low pressure rather than vacuum and using electromagnetic suspension.

HISTORY:When we use less pressure instead of vacuum we have to consider the minimum tube to pod area ratio then we need to increase the diameter of tube or go slow or really , really fast.But increasing speed that high will become very much expensive.Here an electric compressor fan mounted on the nose of the pod that actively transfers high pressure air from the front to the rear of the vessel.A battery cant store enough energy to power fan over whole journey so a linear electric motor, a round induction motor rolled flat is provided.KANTROWITZ LIMIT:

BENEFITS:SaferFasterLower costs and this kind of speedMore convenientImmune to weatherSustainably self poweringResistant to earth quakesDecrease the trafficDecreases the frictional losses that occur at subsonic speedUsing solar power.

It cannot decrease the number current trips and cost relatively to existing transport systems but it decreases the travelling time and costs between California and Los AngelesWe can mount solar panels on the tubes for energy to transport and use battery to store for night time.The energy cost and energy consumed per passenger is also relatively lower compared to existing systems.Energy consumed per passenger to travel same distance is very low compared to cars, aero planes , high speed trains.




CAPSULE:The maximum width is 4.43 ft (1.35 m) and maximum height is 6.11 ft (1.10 m). With rounded corners, this is equivalent to a 15 ft2 (1.4 m2) frontal area, not including any propulsion or suspension components.The capsules are accelerated via a magnetic linear accelerator affixed at various stations on the low pressure tube with rotors contained in each capsule

COMPONENTS OF HYPERLOOP:For travel at high speeds, the greatest power requirement is normally to overcome air resistance.Aerodynamic drag increases with the square of speed, and thus the power requirement increases with the cube of speed. For example, to travel twice as fast a vehicle must overcome four times the aerodynamic resistance, and input eight times the powerThe capsules are supported via air bearings that operate using a compressed air reservoir and aerodynamic liftThis is an operating pressure of 100 Pascals, which reduces the drag force of the air by 1,000 times relative to sea level conditions and would be equivalent to flying above 150,000 feet altitude

COMPRESSOR:One important feature of the capsule is the onboard compressor, which serves two purposes . This system allows the capsule to traverse the relatively narrow tube without choking flow that travels between the capsule and the tube wallsby compressing air that is bypassed through the capsule. It also supplies air to air bearings that support the weight of the capsule throughout the journey.Tube air is compressed with a compression ratio of 20:1 via an axial compressorUp to 60% of this air is bypassed: a. The air travels via a narrow tube near bottom of the capsule to the tail.b. A nozzle at the tail expands the flow generating thrust to mitigate some of the small amounts of aerodynamic and bearing drag

The compressor is powered by a 436 hp (325 kW) onboard electric motor: a. The motor has an estimated mass of 372 lb (169 kg), which includes power electronics. b. An estimated 3,400 lb (1,500 kg) of batteries provides 45 minutes of onboard compressor power, which is more than sufficient for the travel time with added reserve backup power.

GeometryIn order to optimize the capsule speed and performance, the frontal area has been minimized for size while maintaining passenger comfort.

Hyperloop passenger transport capsule conceptual design sketchThe tube is made of steel. Two tubes will be welded together in a side by side configuration to allow the capsules to travel both directions.Pylons are placed every 100 ft (30 m) to support the tubeSolar arrays will cover the top of the tubes in order to provide power to the system.The inner diameter of the tube is optimized to be 7 ft 4 in. (2.23 m) which is small enough to keep material cost low while large enough to provide some alleviation of choked air flow around the capsule.TUBE:The tube cross-sectional area is 42.2 ft2 (3.91 m2) giving a capsule/tube area ratio of 36% or a diameter ratio of 60%.

The high-speed transport more generally ,have historically been impeded by the difficulties in managingfrictionandair resistance, both of which become substantial when vehicles approach high speeds.vactrainconcept : tubes kept at a completevacuum, allowing for theoretical speeds of thousands of miles per hour.The expected pressure inside the tube will be maintained around 100pa (less pressure).This low pressure minimizes the drag force on the capsule while maintaining the relative ease of pumping out the air from the tube.

Linear accelerators are constructed along the length of the tube at various locations to accelerate the capsules.Stators are located on the capsules to transfer momentum to the capsules via the linear accelerators.Capsules are accelerated by linear magnetic induction and decelerated by regenerative braking similar to magnetic levitation trains.The Hyperloop as a whole is projected to consume an average of 28,000 hp (21 MW).This includes the power needed to make up for propulsion motor efficiency (including elevation changes), aerodynamic drag, charging the batteries to power on-board compressors, and vacuum pumps to keep the tube evacuated.Each accelerator has two 65 MVA inverters, one to accelerate the outgoing capsule, and one to capture the energy from the incoming capsule


The Hyperloop uses a linear induction motor to accelerate and decelerate the capsule. This provides several important benefits over a permanent magnet motor

For aerodynamic efficiency, the velocity of a capsule in the Hyperloop is typically: 300 mph (480 kmph) where local geography necessitates a tube bend radii< 1.0 mile (1.6 km) 760 mph (1,220 kmph) where local geography allows a tube bend > 3.0miles (4.8 km) or where local geography permits a straight tube.These bend radii have been calculated so that the passenger does not experience inertial accelerations that exceed 0.5g. This is deemed the maximum inertial acceleration that can be comfortably sustained by humans for short periods. To further reduce the inertial acceleration experienced by passengers, the capsule and/or tube will incorporate a mechanism that will allow a degree of banking.

ROUTE:Suspending the capsule within the tube presents a substantial technical challenge due to transonic cruising velocities.Conventional wheel and axle systems become impractical at high speed due frictional losses and dynamic instability. A viable technical solution is magnetic levitation; however the cost associated with material and construction is prohibitive. An alternative to these conventional options is an air bearing suspension. Air bearings offer stability and extremely low drag at a feasible cost by exploiting the ambient atmosphere in the tube.When the gap height between a ski and the tube wallis reduced, the flow field in the gap exhibits a highly non-linear reaction resulting in large restoring pressures

SUSPENSION: Schematic of air bearing skis that support the capsule.

The increased pressure pushes the ski away from the wall, allowing it to return to its nominal ride height SAFETY:Power OutageCapsule DepressurizationCapsule Stranded in TubeEarthquakesReliability

It costs around 6 billion USD.


A high speed transportation system known as Hyperloop introduced here. Its basically magnetic levitation train in vacuum tubes helping in achieving high speeds.It has various advantages over traditional transport system.FUTURE WORK:More expansion on the control mechanism for Hyperloop capsules, including attitude thruster or control moment gyros.Using conventional magnetic levitation systems.Testing of prototype and decreasing the cost further.

CONCLUSION:Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013)."Hyperloop Alpha".SpaceX. Hyperloop ,WikipediaGarber, Megan (July 13, 2012)."The Real iPod: Elon Musk's Wild Idea for a 'Jetson Tunnel' from S.F. to L.A.".The Atlantic. "Beyond the hype of Hyperloop: An analysis of Elon Musk's proposed transit system".Gizmag.com. August 22, 2013. Bilton, Nick."Could the Hyperloop Really Cost $6 Billion? Critics Say No".The New York Times.