Hydrogen Fuel Cell Battery

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Transcript of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Battery

  • SEMINAR ON hydrogen fuel cell battery Presented By Guided By Aman Raikwar Prof P.D.R Patnaik

  • ContentBatteryTypes of batteryIntroduction to fuel cellHow do fuel cell workTypes of hydrogen fuel cellAlkaline fuel cellWorking of PEM hydrogen fuel cellHydrogen fuel cell and redox reactionWhy fuel cellHydrogen fuel cell and efficiency ,environment ,nuclear energy Application and challenges ahead conclusion

  • What is Battery ?Battery is a energy storing device. Batteries operate by converting chemical energy into electrical energy through electrochemical discharge reactions. Batteries are composed of one or more cells, each containing a positive electrode, negative electrode, separator, and electrolyte.Basically batteries undergo chemical reaction known as redox reaction.Anode, it involves the Cells's Oxidation Half-Reaction and produces electrons. Cathode, it involves the Cells's Reduction Half-Reaction, consuming electrons.The cathodic half-cell is producing an excess of positive ions and the anodic half-cell is depleting them. This imbalance within both half-cells is rectified by adding a electrolyte to the Cell.

  • Types of batteryPrimary cell or non-rechargeable batteries A primary cell batteries are designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity

    Secondary or rechargeable batteries A secondary battery is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into load and recharged many times

  • INTRODUCTION TO FUEL CELLSA Fuel Cell is an Electrochemical device that produces electricity.Unlike a battery the reaction is sustained as long as the cell is being supplied by fuel. The reaction happens at relatively low temperatures, and no combustion takes place in the fuel cell. In the Fuel cell the hydrogen is the primary fuel. When the hydrogen is introduced a chemical reaction between hydrogen and air produces electricity, pure water and some heat.

  • How Do Fuel Cells Work? REDOX REACTION

    oxidation reduction CATALYSTS (rate of reaction) ELECTROLYTE

  • TYPES OF HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS ALKALINE FUEL CELLS aka: bacon fuel cell

    PEM FUEL CELLS proton exchange membrane (or proton electrolyte membrane)

  • Alkaline Fuel CellsHydrogenElectron flowLoadOxygenCathodeElectrolyteAnodeWaterHydroxyl ions

  • How Hydrogen Fuel Cells Work PEMProton exchange membrane cellsA fuel cell produced electricity by combining Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms electrochemically rather than through combustionHydrogen = fuel electrolysis stored as a compressed gas/liquid/metal compoundA single fuel cell consists of an anode and a cathode with an electrolyte in betweenHydrogen molecules enter the anode react with catalysts (1) split into H+ & e- H+ pass through electrolyte, e- directed through an external circuit = electrical currentOxygen molecules enter at the cathode + H+ + e- water & heatIndividual fuel cells placed in a series = fuel cell stack power vehicle

  • HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS& REDOX REACTIONAlkaline Fuel Cells

    Anode, H2 is oxidized:H2 + 2OH- 2H2O + 2e- H2 2H+ + 2e-

    Electrons flow through an external circuit and return to the cathode, reducing oxygen:O2 + 2H2O + 4e- 4OH- 4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O

    PEM Fuel Cells

  • Why Fuel Cells?Termed the Micro chip of the energy industryReasonable to expect almost every power producing device in the world to be replaced by fuel cell devices in the next 50-80 years.Market potential is in the Trillions for such an endeavor.Two important Advantages of fuel cells is that they produce no pollution emissions or greenhouse gases, do not require supplies of foreign oil.Needs Hydrogen and Oxygen, and emits water.Biologically Friendly, Slow down the pollution, and begin to change the destruction.

  • HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS& EFFICIENCYAutomobile internal combustion enginesinefficient 25%Rechargeable batteries (modified lead-acid, nickel-cadmium batteries)Run down quickly 250 KmRecharged from external electrical sourceTakes hoursFuel cellsEfficient 80%

  • HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS & THE ENVIRONMENTAutomobile engines: gasoline = pollutantsCO2, Nox, VOCshealth & environmental problems: smog, greenhouse effectElectric cars: hydrogen fuel cells = pollution freeCleaner, quieter, more efficientProduct: water vapourProduction of hydrogen fuel unnatural resourceHydrocarbon fuels (petroleum, methane) = pollutionElectrolysis of water powered by solar energy or hydroelectricity = low pollutionRenewable energy source

  • Hydrogen Fuel Cell And Nuclear EnergyMost hydrogen production at present comes from natural gas or coal On a much smaller scale, some production comes from a cleaner process called electrolysisnuclear power plants are ideal for hydrogen production Future plants, designed specifically for hydrogen production

  • APPLICATIONThe Fuel Cell produces electricity directly from hydrogen fuel, it can be used for anything that uses power in the form of electricity, rotary power or heat. They can be made to be small enough to power a cellular phone or large enough to power a town. The benefit is that the design of the system does not change.Therefore the markets for fuel cells is virtually unlimited.Fuel cell powered cars

  • CHALLENGES AHEAD.The cost to make the systems, the cost of development and adaptation. The catalysts require expensive precious-metal catalysts, and others need to be resistant to very high temperatures.Durability and Dependability, the high temperatures cells are prone to breakdown, need effective water management systems to operate efficiently.Fuel Issues:ProductionDeliveryStorageSafetyPublic Acceptance, and consumer embrace of the products.

  • ConclusionHydrogen fuel cell is good replaceable option over gasoline engine Pollution free More efficient

  • References(Srensen), B. S. (2005).Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Emerging Technologies and Applications (Sustainable World). Toronto: Academic Press.Harkin, T., & Hoffmann, P. (2001).Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. London: The Mit Press.Holland, G., & Provenzano, J. (2007).Hydrogen Age, The. Layton: Gibbs Smith, Publisher.Collecting the History of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. (n.d.).National Museum of American History. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from http://americanhistory.si.edu/fuelcells/basics.htm

    ***Same as combustion of hydrogen (exothermic)Fuel cell: produces energy in the form of electricity

    H2 is led to the anode, tow which it may lose e- and thereby form H+Ions capable of diffusing through the electrolyte, while e- flow through the external circuit.

    Gaseous oxygen is similarly led to the cathode, combines with returning e- from the circuit and H+ from the electrolyte**Converts 25% of the chemical energy of the fuel into the kinetic energy of the car. Rechargeable batteries run down quickly.*The automobile internal combustion engines use gasoline as fuel, produce CO2, NOx, & volatile organic compounds. ***