Hungary Review. Hungary in the 1500’s Early 1500s - Turkish Suleiman the Magnificent led troops to...

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Transcript of Hungary Review. Hungary in the 1500’s Early 1500s - Turkish Suleiman the Magnificent led troops to...

  • Slide 1
  • Hungary Review
  • Slide 2
  • Hungary in the 1500s Early 1500s - Turkish Suleiman the Magnificent led troops to conquer Hungary Turkish Sultan took central Hungary = Hungary divided into three parts Reformation rocked Hungary while Catholic Counter-Reformation won converts
  • Slide 3
  • Hungary in the 1600s Turkish power waned Austria (Holy Roman Empire) turned on Turks Turks routed at Senta and Hapsburgs gained almost all of Hungary
  • Slide 4
  • Hungary in the 1700s Hapsburg still controlled the throne Hungary agreed to the Pragmatic Sanction Agreed to become a hereditary monarchy under the Hapsburgs as long as dynasty lasted HUGE population increase Many different nationalities A series of different monarchs Maria Theresa, Joseph II, Charles III, Leopold II Nobility is a constant problem Didnt want to pay taxes Peasants constantly unhappy Taxes, unfair treatment Nationalism and language confusion = problems Hungary declared its own independent nation
  • Slide 5
  • Hungary in the 1800s Movements to revive Hungarian nationalism and culture Attempts at economic and social reforms During the European revolutions many changes made Freeing of serfs Govt responsible to parliament Still tied with Austria Leads to fight for independence Dual Monarchy is formed with Austria Lead to rapid growth in economics, education, and culture Great prosperity with dual monarchy Still many different national groups causing trouble
  • Slide 6
  • Hungary in the 1900s (early) Hungary gained independence in 1918 from the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy Miklos Horthy ruled as regent of Kingdom of Hungary in interwar era Invaded by Nazis, government was removed and puppet government made After WWII, Communist party gained control
  • Slide 7
  • Hungary in the Cold War Became Peoples Republic of Hungary after WWII Communist leadership as a part of the USSR 1956 - revolt against soviet occupation failed and was crushed Soviet government cracked down, people were imprisoned in camps Fall of Communism led to change in government of Hungary - towards democracy
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  • Hungary Today Third Hungarian Republic Soviets troops left 1991 State released control of economy - ended communism This led to rough economic times in the 20th century
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  • 1526: Battle of Mohacs Turkish troops invade Hungary led by Suleiman the Magnificent Turks defeat Hungarians Successfully take over Hungary Begins 150 years of Turkish occupation Hungary was majorly influenced by the Turks
  • Slide 10
  • 1699: Expulsion of Turks Austrian Hapsburgs under Leopold I expel Turks Pushes Turks out of all Hungarian territory and power Hungary builds up power
  • Slide 11
  • 1703-1711: Rkczis War for Independence First important war for Hungarys independence Fought by nobility who wanted to put an end to the inequality of power relations Wanted to ensure development of Hungary and the rights of social orders Kept Hungary from being an integrated part of Hapsburg Empire Even though it failed, the constitution was kept and Hungary wasnt incorporated into the government
  • Slide 12
  • 1713: The Pragmatic Sanction Imposed by Emperor Charles VI Made sure that his daughter could inherit the throne Kept the powerful Hapsburg line going Lead to Maria Theresa being queen Many conflicts from other countries once Charles dies and Maria is crowned-leads to War of Austrian Succession
  • Slide 13
  • 1848: Hungarian Revolution Was a war of independence for Hungary Nobles wanted to keep their special privileges while a liberal party emerged April Laws approved-created democratical political system Caused disagreement between Austria and Hungary- Austria didnt like Hungarys govt Lead to a war between the two- the war for Hungarys independence from the Hapsburg empire
  • Slide 14
  • 1867: Austro-Hungarian Compromise The joining Austria and Hungary under one leader Each country had their own laws and governments Came after the defeat of Austria by Prussia Upset the ethnic minorities in Hungary who had very few rights Made the two countries almost independent-more prosperous
  • Slide 15
  • 1918: Foundation of Hungarian Republic At the end of World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was dissolved Revolution took place against the oppressive Austrian monarchy A new Hungarian republic was established Significance First time Hungary had its own independence since before 1867 A shift in government
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  • 1944-45: Nazi and Soviet takeovers Hungarian Nazis deposed Horthy and installed a puppet regime The next year, Soviet forces drove out the Germans The new Soviet Hungarian government set up land reform bills, returning land to peasants Significance Set up a Soviet government in Hungary Beginning of Communism in Russia
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  • 1956: Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Spontaneous revolts of population throughout Hungary began, starting as student protest (started 23 Oct) Imre Nagy became prime minister; plans to withdraw from the Warsaw pact and become a neutral power. The Soviets responded by crushing the revolt and suppressed all public opposition (ended 10 Nov) Significant because it reaffirmed Soviet rule in Hungary Top Event because it was attempt by the people to rid themselves of a tyrannical ruling party
  • Slide 18
  • 1991: Fall of Communism Last Soviet troops left Russia Government gave up economic control Farms, factories, etc went Significant because this was the official end of Hungary as a communist state Led to Democratic reforms and economic problems
  • Slide 19
  • Suleiman the Magnificent r. 1520-1566 Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Known as Law Giver in his empire Reforms made life in North Africa and the Mediterranean area superior to European neighbors Events: Siege of Belgrade Battle of Mohacs Capture of Aden Capture of Muscat
  • Slide 20
  • Ferdinand I 1526-1564 Created Peace of Augsburg-princes determine the religion for their territories Very anti-protestantism and helped bring down protestant groups Eventually saw the need for a compromise- Treaty of Passau Saw much competition in Hungary from the Ottoman Empire and Janos Zapolya Events: Peace of Augsburg-princes decided the religion for their territory Treaty of Passau- compromised with Lutheran leader Maurice of Saxony Peace of Nagyvrad-compromise with Ottoman Empire and Janos Zapolya Converted the electoral crowns of Bohemia and Hungary into hereditary crowns of Hapsburg line
  • Slide 21
  • Franz Joseph I (1830-1916) Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary Created a dual monarchy between Austria and Hungary in 1867 (the Austro-Hungarian Empire) Was relatively unsuccessful in his attempts of unifying his empire. Events: Created the dual monarchy between Austria and Hungary Planned to grant self government to the Austrian Slavs, but failed. Calmed the nationalistic fervor of the native Magyar people and prevented uprising. Provided an increased standard of living for most of his subjects.
  • Slide 22
  • Miklos Horthy 1920-1944 Military commander in Early life Took control during Interwar Period Strongly conservative Regent of the Hungarian Republic Events: Great Depression caused problems in his economy Strongly stabilized the economy by canceling Treaty of Trianman Created an alliance with the Nazis, was uneasy but supported their troops Nazis turned on him and invaded Hungary, Horthy was arrested