HORTICULTURE THERAPY FOR PHYSICALLY AND MENTALLY CHALLENGED CHILDREN

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KERALA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF HOME SCIENCE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE VELLAYANI PROJECT REPORT IMPARTING TRAINING FOR HORTICULTURE PRODUCTION THROUGH HORTICULTURE THERAPY FOR PHYSICALLY AND MENTALLY CHALLENGED CHILDREN 2008-2009 SUBMITTED TO STATE HORTICULTURE MISSION, KERALA

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KERALA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF HOME SCIENCE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE VELLAYANI

PROJECT REPORTIMPARTING TRAINING FOR HORTICULTURE PRODUCTION THROUGH

HORTICULTURE THERAPYFOR PHYSICALLY AND MENTALLY CHALLENGED CHILDREN

2008-2009SUBMITTED TO

STATE HORTICULTURE MISSION, KERALA

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to thank the State Horticulture Mission for providing and enhancing this valuable productive project.

Our deepest thanks and appreciation goes to all staff members and children of the institutes where we conducted the project. Our sincere gratitude to Mrs. Helen Azaraih, the Director of Centre for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Palayam. Mrs Hassena, Principal of St. Peters School for Mentally Challenged Children, Pongumoodu. Dr Pillai , Director of PRS PillaicMemorial, Balavikas Institute for Mentally Retarded Children, Peroorkada.

Our gratitude to Dr.K. Prathapan for his continuous & never ending support to this programme.

We would like to thank and appreciate Honble Minister , Ministry of Devaswom, Shri. Kadannapalli Ramachandran for inaugurating the one day workshop on Child development through Horticulture Therapy. Our thanks to the, staff of the Government Guest House, Thycaud for providing the perfect backdrop to the workshop which was held at the Banquet hall , the facilities provided by the Guest House were spectacular.

We owe our thanks to Dr.K.Harikrishnan Nair, Dean, College of Agriculture, Vellayani for his Productive and Constructive comments. At last but not least our appreciation to Dr.P. Sivaprasad whos help and guidance provided us the way forward.

With regards

Dr Beela.G.K and Dr B.R. Reghunath

Sl. No

CONTENTS

Page No.

1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1

2

INTRODUCTION

2-3

3

BACKGROUND

4

4

OBJECTIVES

5

5

METHODOLOGY

5-21

6

IMPACT EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT

22

7

RESEARCH FINDINGS

22-24

8

CONCLUSION

25-27

9

RECOMMENDATIONS

28

10

APPENDICES

11

REFERENCES

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Principal Investigator

:

Dr. Beela G.K, Assistant Professor,

Dept of Home Science,

College of Agriculture, Vellayani

Co- Investigator

:

Dr. Reghunath B. R,

Professor of Horticulture

Dept. of Plantation Crops & Spices

College of Agriculture, Vellayani

Technical Assistants

:

Mrs. Shunmukha Priya.S

Ms. Preetha. L

Ms. Asha Devi

Ms. Manirekha M.R

Reporting period

:

December 2008- February 2010

Date of this Report

:

February 2010

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INTRODUCTIONHorticultural Therapy is an integrated approach to human development using horticulture with behavioral science. It is a multi disciplinary program of study involving fields such as psychology, child development, land scape architecture, horticulture. education, gerontology, sociology, urban planning and

Man has two way of being creative by fostering life by acquiring objects. Growing plants exclusively on a commercial basis should have been named Hortonomy which is done with the concept & behavior of acquiring. Growing plants for pleasure could be called the typical Horticulture, for it is based mostly on the concept and behavior of fostering. Horticulture provides not only the concept and behavior of fostering but also that of acquiring through harvesting and admiring horticultural products and accomplishments which are obtained by ones own efforts. These concepts and behaviors of fostering and acquiring are learned through horticultural activity in ones daily life. Horticulture Horticulture by itself enables one to live as man should live. This is how horticulture becomes therapy and can be fascinating hobby. satisfies both requirements for being creative. That is Thus,

Horticulture Therapy is capable of helping children of special needs adapt, cope develop and expand their personal abilities and potentials. The role of the horticultural therapy and the use of the natural environment as a model for the development of disabled children can help incorporating horticulture program in the special education curriculum.

Horticulture Therapy is the science and practice of using plants and plant related activities in a treatment setting. It is especially useful as a therapeutic tool. Studies has shown that Horticulture Therapy provide benefits to special education students, to vocational rehabilitation of handicapped individuals, in substance abuse treatment and in geriatrics facilities. A recent report has shown that human stress indicators can be reduced through horticultural vocational training.

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Studies have shown that plants have aesthetic and spiritual qualities. They provide a sense of connection to life and time and can restore order working in a garden produces peaceful concentration and takes ones focus off of the disability.

When Horticulture Therapy is incorporated into a rehabilitation plan, patients experience more enjoyment in their recovery and reduced stress anxiety.

Horticulture Therapy is universally adaptable and validated by research. Horticulture Therapy is a quiet pursuit that allows temporary freedom from everyday stress. It provides feed back without criticism and rewards care and attention to detail.

Studies show that Horticulture therapy can alleviate depression improve motor communication, teach problem solving, develop self confidence and enhance self esteem. skills, encourage work adjustment, social interaction and

Horticulture Therapy has proven beneficial to many types of people particularly those who are physically or developmentally disabled, mentally ill, elderly, substance abusers and socially disadvantaged.

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BACKGROUNDIn India, there are more than 50 million children with disabilities. Despite the belief that these children should share the some quality of life as all children there are no gardens specially designed and built for children with disabilities. In addition there are no hospitals, rehabilitation facilities or other institutions through horticulture. The Government of Kerala reports that 21,000 children are identified to be challenged or disabled in Thiruvananthapuram district. In Asia, there has been a great recognition of the use of gardening and horticulture as therapy and in 1997 the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations published an interesting article on Horiculture Therapy. In May 1997, FAO sponsored a Round Table Meeting on the "Integration of Disabled People in Agricultural and Agro-industry Systems", held at Bangkok. During this Round Table Meeting, substantial issues were considered, including the status disabled persons in agricultural systems, specially disabled persons in rural areas, the visually and mentally disabled persons in agriculture. FAO has now started on the path of developing articulated policies and strategies for improving the poverty alleviation and income generating capacities of the disabled, an important sector of the rural poor.

This project worked closely with people and organizations in order to help grow and nurture horticulture therapy. Hence this project will be a head start for incorporating horticulture therapy as a part of curriculum in the state.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECTThe objectives of the project are as follows:

1. To empower the physically and mentally challenged children through horticultural therapy and enable them to generate income skills attained 2. To give scientific validation of impact of horticultural therapy on the psycho motor and social development. 3. To evaluate whether children participating in PROJECT benefited by an improvement in self esteem, inter personal relationship, attitude towards school and stress management. 4. To create and evaluate a time efficient evaluation tool to assess individual progress in horticultural therapy programmes. through the

METHODOLOGYNature of the study:

The project is basically a participatory approach study which examines the impact of Horticulture therapy on the physically and mentally challenged children through training on horticulture production and other related activities. Design of the study:

The methods used to test the hypotheses and meet the objectives in connection with the present study are discussed under the following heads

1) The Sample / Participants

2) The Tool

3) Description of the Tool

4) Main Study

5) Statistical Techniques used

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The Sample / Participants: In the present study sample comprised of 50 physically challenged and 50 mentally challenged children in the age group of 12-18 yrs. The children were selected using the purposive sampling method.

A purposive sampling is a technique in which a designed number of sample unit is selected deliberately upon the objective of the enquiry (Young, 1986)

Purposive sampling method was selected as sampling technique in the present study because since it was an action research only those physically challenged children who are interested in and capable of doing gardening activities were selected. Also, the subject experts found this method of sampling most suitable for the present project.

The Tools used to collect data:

For collection of data, the following tools were used in the present project.

Tool 1: Socio-economic Characteristics- Questionnaire

For collecting the general socio-economic and family background of the participants questionnaire was constructed.

Tool 2: Motor Skills-Observation Schedule using picture cards

For studying the gross and fine motor skills of the children an observation schedule using pictures was made.

Tool 3: Emotional Expressions - - using picture cards

For studying the emotional expression of the children an observation schedule using pictures was made.

Tool 4: Psychometric scales: Self Esteem, Self Concept

For assessing the self esteem and self concept of the samples before and after imparting Horticulture Therapy a rating scale in the form of a questionnaire was constructed.

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Preparation of the Tools:

In accordance with the questionnaire construction principles. Next to the choice of suitable topic and population, probably no other aspect of a questionnaire study is more crucial to the success than is the adequacy of the questionnaires itself.

the

present

study,

questionnaires

were

developed

strictly

in

The first step in the construction of an adequate questionnaire was to attain a thorough grasp of the field and a clear understanding of the objectives of the study and the nature of data needed. satisfied three conditions in order to be effective. First the respondents should understand the questions asked. Secondly the respondents should attribute the same meaning to the questions as the investigators. Thirdly, questions need to be phrased in such a way that the respondents can answer out of his own experience or feelings and not an what he/ she thinks ought to say or believes that the investigator wants him to say or thinks that some one like himself might say. The questions were made clear and unambiguous. Items on any questionnaires

Collection of Statement:

The first step in the preparation of rating scale was to obtain statements to which the samples having different feelings will respond differently. The investigators collected statements from various books, journals, magazines, after discussions with specialists and experts in the similar field. Considering the subjects, as they are the physically and mentally challenged children, investigators took care to prepare short questionnaires.

Editing of statements for the pre-test scale:

The statements were edited to ensure terminology consistent with the purpose to be served and to ensure their appropriated ness for the three alternative responses, the investigators decided to allow. Statements having even slightly doubtful presentations were dropped.

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Pre-Testing

The main objective of the pre-testing were

1. To find out the difficulties of the participants in understanding the meaning of the terms. 2. To find out weak or defective terms. 3. To estimate the discrimination power of each individual item. 4. To finalize the number of items to be included in the final schedule. The questionnaire was finalized after pretesting was carried out.

Selection of the Institutions: Three institutions were selected based on the number and characteristics of challenged children 1) Centre for Rehabilitation of the Disabled , LMS compound Palayam. The project was formally launched on 3rd Dec 2008 the World Disability Day at the centre for Rehabilitation of the Disabled (formerly polio home). Dr. K. Prathapan, Director of State Horticulture Mission, Kerala, presided the function. Dr.K. Hari Krishnan Nair, Dean, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, inaugurated the project by donating an Ashoka Tree seedling to the centre. Dr.P. Sivaprasad, Associate Director of Research, College of Agriculture, Vellayani felicitated the function.

2) P.R.S Pillai Memorial Balavikas Institute School for Special Children, Peroorkada The programme was inaugurated by Dr.K. Hari Krishnan Nair , Dean, College of Agriculture on 5/3/09. The project was initiated at the centre from then. 3) St. Peters School for Mentally Challenged Children, Pongumoodu The project was inaugurated by Dr.K. Hari Krishnan Nair, Dean College of Agriculture on 13/10/09, by donating an Ashoka seedling to the centre and the Horticulture Therapy project came into from 13/10/09 at the centre. Dr.Mary Ukkuru,Professor and Head,Department of Home Science also attended.

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Dr.K. Hari Krishnan Nair, Dean, College of Agriculture giving the inaugural address at St. Peters Centre for Mentally Challenged Children

Screening the Sample Based on their disabilities the children were categorized as mild, moderate and severely disabled. Children those who were mild and moderately challenged were selected as participants for horticulture therapy Selection of Sample

Fifty physically challenged and fifty mentally challenged children were selected as participants, after having discussion with the special educators from each school. An orientation class was given to the special educators and staff in each effectiveness. school, for creating awareness on Horticulture Therapy and its

The Main Study

The study was carried out in the following steps:-

I. Pre Horticulture Therapy

II. Horticulture Therapy

III. Post Horticulture Therapy

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I Pre Horticulture Therapy Session

In this session, the personal and socio- economic characteristics of the children were assessed with the help of the teacher. Psychometric tests were also administered to assess the participants with respect to motor skills, self esteem, emotional expression and stress. II Horticulture therapy Session

i. training on plantation and raising a Horticulture therapy garden.

Training on Horticulture Production: This session included imparting

Figure 1: Dr. B.R. Reghunath, (Professor of Horticulture, Plantation Crops and Spices) handling sessions on Horticulture production.

ii. Raising Special Childs Garden or Horticulture Therapy Garden

The area chosen in each centre was such that it was easily accessible to the physically, mentally challenged children. The selected area was ploughed

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well and a grass path of 3 feet was kept so that physically challenged children can walk through.

As the participants of the present project were physically and mentally challenged children, the concept of the raised Horticulture Therapy Garden was with NO DIG CONCEPT. The plants were raised in clay pots, gunny bags, glass containers and hanging baskets as these procedures do not require digging with spade.

Potting mixture was prepared using river sand, red loam, dried cattle manure, bone meal in the ratio 1:2:1 respectively. Later this mixture was filled in polyethylene cover, clay pots, gunny bags and hanging baskets with the help of children and labour. After filling the sacks they are kept apart at a distance of 50cm each so as to enable easy intercultural operations. Seeds were first sown in transplanted to clay pots, gunny bags and hanging baskets filled with potting mixture. In addition to the seeds, stem cuttings were also planted. The potted plants were regularly irrigated by the children, with sponges which in turn help to improve their fine motor skills. therapy garden was done by the staff and the children. Regular monitoring of the horticulture polyethylene cover and after 2 weeks the sprouted seedlings were

Figure 2: Seedlings transplanted to gunny bags filled with potting mixture

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Figure 3: A pond maintained in the Horticulture Therapy Garden by the children at Centre for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Palayam

The plants grown in the Horticulture Therapy garden were

1. 2. cucumber, beans 3. Fruits like papaya 4. Tubers like sweet potato, tapioca 5. Medicinal and Aromatic plants like ocimum, panikurka, nelli, kartarvazha, neela amari, chittaratha, satavari, brahmi, turmeric etc. Vegetables like tomato, bindhi, amaranthus, bitter gourd, snake gourd,

Ornamental plant like Rose, orchids, Begono, Mari gold, Zenia, Portulaca

Figure 4: Each child was allotted with a plant and the child was asked to name the plant

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Asking the children their interest, a plant was allotted to them, with a name suggested by them to the plant. They were also informed that they will be responsible for the plant that has been allotted to them.

Figure 5: Children using sponge to water the plants which enhances their Fine Motor Skills

Physically challenged children were asked to water the plants using the sponge so that when they squeeze the sponge , it enables them to improve their motor skills.

Figure 6: Weeding and pruning done by the children

After one month, poultry manure, coir pith compost vermi compost were applied. Fortnightly weeding and pruning was done by the children. Botanical pesticides were applied for controlling pests from the plants. Botanical pesticides used were neem oil, bar soap, garlic extract, chilly and kerosene and tobacco decoction.

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Figure 7: Harvesting done by the children

At correct stage, maturity of each plant, harvesting was done by the children.

iii. Horticulture Therapy Activities

Horticulture therapy activities imparted to the physically challenged children were:

a. Making name tags using leaves and flowers

Specific goal of the activity:

Increase mobility Increase self concept and esteem Improve fine motor skills Improve co ordination and balance Provide an environment to interact with others Provide an environment to learn and be inspired by others.

Children participating in the project were instructed to pin the name tag on their dress before doing any Horticulture therapy activity.

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b. Clay Modeling and Designing a Garden using clay

Specific goal of the activity:

Improve fine and gross motor skills Improve co-ordination and balance Increase muscular strength Provide an out let for stress, anger and emotions Increase attention span Encourage self expression and creativity

Figure 8 : Children using clay while designing a garden

c.

Sand Craft

Specific goal of the activity:

Improve fine and gross motor skills Improve co-ordination and balance Increase muscular strength Increase attention span Encourage self expression and creativity

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d. Dry flower picture frames Specific goal of the activity: Improve fine motor skills Improve co-ordination and balance Encourage creativity Create commitment to living things Improve self esteem

Figure 9: Mentally challenged children coming up with creative ideas using dry flower. e. Fresh flower arrangement

Specific goal of the activity: Improve fine motor skills Improve co-ordination and balance Encourage creativity Create commitment to living things / plants Improve self esteem

Figure 10: Various styles of Ikebana tried out by the children.

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f.Combination planting

Specific goal of the activity: Provides choice and abilities to use problem solving Encourage self expression and creativity Improve fine motor skills Improve co-ordination and balance Improve self esteem Create commitment to living things/ plants Build independence

Figure 11: Combination Planting

f. Making Greeting Card

Specific goal of the activity:

Improve fine motor skills Improve co-ordination and balance Encourage creativity Create commitment to living things Improve self esteem

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Figure 12: Horticulture therapy garden raised by the physically challenged children at Centre for Rehabilitation of the Disabled,Palayam

III. POST HORTICULTURE THERAPY SESSION

Post training survey was conducted and the children were subjected to standardized psychometric tests and rating scales to measure the effects of Horticulture therapy.

In order to assess the impact of Horticulture therapy on psychomotor and social development of the physically challenged, the selected physically challenged were subjected to the standardized psychometric tests like self concept, self esteem and stress tests. observed systematically using Inter Observer Agreement Method before and after attending Horticulture therapy activities. The motor skills of the children were

Figure 13: A child expressing his emotions using picture card

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WORKSHOPS AND EXHIBITIONSONE DAY WORKSHOP ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT THROUGH HORTICULTURE THERAPY - 2009.

A one day workshop was organized in order to create awareness on Horticulture Therapy and its benefits. The workshop was in bloom in the last week of November on 25th. Around 150 participants came from

Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Ernakulam, Ireland and Germany. Devaswom Minister Shri. Kadannappally Ramachandran inaugurated the workshop with his inaugural address Sustaining wellness:drawing from the roots of Horticultural therapy. The Director of Research, Kerala Agricultural University continued the momentum with his presidential address Gardening to nurture the body and spirit. The importance of plants to the quality of life. Dr.K. Prathapan , the Mission Director, State Horticulture Mission and Dr.P. Sivaprasad, Associate Director of Research, Kerala Agricultural University presented felicitation

address. The work shop continued with more informative section, which was handled by Dr. Beela G. K. (Principal Investigator) and Dr. B.R. Reghunath (CoPrincipal Investigator). The sessions explored how and why horticulture therapy is effective from a psychological perspective. It described and demonstrated techniques to communicate effectively and encourage constructive change in horticulture therapy programme. Horticulture therapy workshop was designed to train professionals in the core knowledge to get a brief idea and orientation on practice of Horticultural Therapy. The workshop also gave an opportunity to learn and implement therapeutic garden characteristics, design elements, roles of the design team, therapeutic activities, garden care and evaluation to support activity programmes and rehabilitation therapies.

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The workshop also featured round table discussions and interactive presentations. All facts of horticultural therapy were represented offering a wealth of information to take back to their respective work places and volunteer opportunities. Attendees also got the chance to watch the horticultural therapy activities and crafts which was exhibited.

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE ONE DAY WORKSHOP ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT THROUGH HORTICULTURE THERAPY

Figure 14: Honble Minister Shri Kadannappali Ramachandran inaugurating the workshop by lightening the lamp

Figure 15: Inaugural Address by Honble Minister Shri Kadannappali Ramachandran

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Figure 16: Participants attending the workshop

Figure 17: Exhibition organized as a part of the workshop

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IMPACT EVALUATION OF THE PROJECTPre and post Horticulture Therapy Psychometric scores were statistically analysed to find the impact of Horticulture Therapy.

Data Analysis

Pairedt test was used to find the significant in the differences in motor skills, self concept, self esteem and stress before and after attending the Horticulture Therapy.

RESEARCH FINDINGSTable I Showing significance of differences in pre and post Horticulture therapy Paired Samples Statistics

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Pair 1 Emotions pre 6.95 57 2.510 .332

Emotions post

13.32

57

3.376

.447

Pair 2 Motor pre 6.67 57 1.756 .233

Motor pos

8.21

57

1.398

.185

Pair 3 Stress pre 16.61 57 1.698 .225

Stress post

11.51

57

2.080

.275

Pair 4 Self pre 6.44 57 2.044 .271

Self post

12.67

57

1.574

.208

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Graph I Showing significance of difference in pre and post Horticulture therapy

Paired Samples Correlations

N

Correlati on

Sig.

Pair 1

Emotional pre & Emotional post Motor pre & Motor post

57

-.015

.913

Pair 2

57

.626

.000

Pair 3

Stress pre & Stress post

57

-.009

.946

Pair 4

Self pre & self post

57

-.215

.109

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Paired Samples Test

Sig.(2tailed) Paired Differences t df

95% Std. Std. Confidence Mean Error Deviation Interval of the Mean Difference

Lower Upper

Emotional pre & Pair 1 Emotional post

-6.368 4.237

.561

-7.493 -5.244

-11.348

56

.000

Pair 2

Motor pre & -1.544 1.402 Motor post

.186

-1.916 -1.172

-8.311

56

.000

Stress pre Pair 3 & Stress post

5.105 2.697

.357

4.390 5.821

14.291

56

.000

Pair 4

Self pre & Self post

-6.228 2.835

.375

-6.980 -5.476

-16.587

56

.000

The table depicts that there is a significant difference in the scores of emotional expression, motor skills, and self esteem in pre and post Horticulture Therapy. The table shows that the pre horticulture therapy stress score was higher than the post horticulture therapy stress scores. The pre horticulture therapy scores of self esteem, motor skills and emotional expression were lesser than the post horticulture therapy scores.

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CONCLUSIONThe research findings of the present project implies that Horticulture Therapy can improve the motor skills of the physically challenged children. There is a remarkable improvement in the self esteem, self concept of the children who underwent Horticulture therapy. The children also develop their emotion expressing skills. Horticulture therapy is also an activity to reduce stress.

The broad range of activities captured the attention of everyone including the teachers and parents. Children were able to interact among themselves and questions were asked during each activity. children to practice what they learned in their training session. Hands on activities allowed the

Developmental Therapist / Child Development Expert

CHILD

Horticulturist

Special Educators & Institution staff

HORTICULTURE THERAPY

The horticulture therapy focuses on the child who takes part in the therapeutic activities. It is a team work of three groups coming together in achieving the goal. Child Development Experts, Horticulturists and Special educators come together and need to work as a team focusing on the child development through horticultural therapy.

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Developmental Therapist Horticulturist

CHILDSupport thru Horticulture therapy

PLANT

PARENT

Developmental Therapist And Special Educators

Horticulture therapy is a process of cyclic system of support. In this process the child supports the plant. The plant supports the parents by giving yield which can add on their daily purchase of vegetables and fruits. The parent again supports the child and it encourages in supporting the plant. The child is monitored and supported by a developmental therapist. A plant is protected and maintained with the help of a horticulturist. Developmental therapist and Institutional staffs regularly supports the parents by counseling and motivating them.

A garden raised bed is ideal for children on wheel chair .

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The benefits of Horticulture therapy are the following Physical benefits Increases mobility Improves fine motor skills Increases muscular strength Improves co-cordination and balance Mental benefits Increases independence Provides an out let for stress, anger and emotional expression Increases self esteem Increases attention span Provides choices and abilities to use problem solving Encourages self expression and creativity Social benefits Provides an environment to interact with others Provides an environment to learn and be inspired by others Reverses the dependency of others Creates commitment to living things Horticulture therapy can be implemented at:

Hospitals Rehabilitation centres Vocational training centres Nursing homes Schools Botanical gardens Health resorts

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RECOMMENDATIONSThe present project has shown that horticulture therapy is highly effective in developing motor skills, self esteem and emotional expressions. It also helps in reducing stress among the physically and mentally challenged children. Therefore it is recommended that every special education centres in the state should adopt Horticulture therapy as a curriculum.

Horticulture therapy will become successful only when the developmental therapist, horticulturist, special educators and parents work together, support each other. More over they all have to work as one team for the welfare of the children.

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APPENDICESI

SCHEDULE TO ELICIT THE PERSONAL AND SOCIO -ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS 1. Name : 2. Age : 3. Address: 4. Class: 5. Religion: 2) 3) 6. Type of family: 1) 2) 7. Family Composition Nuclear family Joint family Christian Muslim 1) Hindu

Details regarding family members:SI no Name of family members Educational status Income from occupation

Relationship

Age

Occupation

8. Other sources of incomeSI no Sources Income

9. Total number of children in the family 10. Number of brothers / sisters 11. Ordinal position of the respondent 12. Types of challenges

: : : : 1) 2) 3)

Mild Moderate Severe

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II PICTURE CARDS TO ASSESS MOTOR SKILLS

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III PICTURE CARDS TO ASSESS EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONS

31

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IV PSYCHOMETRIC SCALES1. Subjective happiness scale

Sl. No. 1.

Question In general, I consider myself Not a very happy person Less happy Somewhat a Happy person Some what happy Some times Avery happy person

1

2

3

2.

Compared to most of my peers, I consider myself 3. Some people are generally very Not at all happy. They enjoy life regardless of what is going on, getting the most out of everything. To what extent does this characterization describe you? Some people are generally not very Not at all happy. Although they are not depressed, they never seem as happy as they might be. To what extent does this characterization describe you?

Very happy

A great deal

4.

Some times

A great deal

2. The Satisfaction with Life Scale

SL No.

Question

1 Disagree

2 Neither Agree or Disagree

3 Agree

5.

In most ways my life is close to my ideal. 6. The conditions of my life are excellent. I am satisfied with life. 7. 8. So far I have gotten the important things I want in life. 9. If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing

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3. The Trait Hope Scale

SI. No.

Question

1 False

2 May be false or may be true

3 True

10.

I can think of many ways to get out of a jam. 11. I energetically pursue my goals.

12.

I feel tired most of the time.

13.

There are lots of ways around any problem. 14. I am easily downed in an argument.

15.

I can think of many ways to get the things in life that are important to me. 16. 17. Even when others get discouraged, I know I can find a way to solve the problem. I worry about my health.

18.

My past experiences have prepared me well for my future.

19.

I've been pretty successful in life.

20.

I usually find myself worrying about something. 21. I meet the goals that I set for myself.

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4.Inspiration Scale

SL No 22.

Question How often does experience inspiration happen to you Never Some times Very often

1

2

3

23.

Something I encounter or experience inspires me. 24. 25. I feel inspired Never Some times Very often I am inspired to do something Never Some times Very often

Never

Some times

Very often

5. Day-to-Day Experiences

SL No.

Question

1 Always

2 Some times

3 Never

26. I could be experiencing some emotion and not be conscious of it until some time later 27 I break or spill things because of carelessness, not paying attention, or thinking of something else. 28 I find it difficult to stay focused on what's happening in the present. 29 I tend to walk quickly to get where I'm going without paying attention to what I experience along the way. 30 I tend not to notice feelings of physical tension or discomfort until they really grab my attention I forget a person's name almost as soon as I've been told it for the first time. It seems I am "running on automatic," without much awareness of what I'm doing. I rush through activities without being really attentive to them.

31

32

33

35

I get so focused on the goal I want to achieve that I lose touch with what I'm doing right now to get there. 35 I do jobs or tasks automatically, widiout being aware of what I'm doing. 36. I find myself listening to someone with one ear, doing something else at the same time. 37. I drive places on 'automatic pilot' and then wonder why I went there. 38 I find myself preoccupied with the future or the past 39 I find myself doing things without paying attention. 40 I snack without being aware that I'm eating.

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V ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION CHARTSl. No Name of the Participant Date

Activity

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

Key:

TOTAL SCORE Attendance X=Present Y=Absent Participations 0=Present but not active

1 = Active with direct assistance

2 = Active independent

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