History timeline

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  • 1. American History Timeline: 1865-1895Costa Poulos

2. Andrew Carnegie: Bornin Scotland in 1848, atage of 12. Carnegiesingle handedly relatedmessages thatunsnarled a tangle offreight trains. He wasone of first industrialmoguls to make hisown fortune1848Sweat Shops: A workplacethat has socially unacceptableworking conditions. Workmay be difficult anddangerous whie beingunderpaid. They originated in1850s.Greenbacks: Papercurrency issued by theUnited States duringthe American CivilWar. They were in 2forms, Demand notes:issued in 1861-1862and United Statesnotes: issued in 1862-1865.1850 1850s 1857Bessemer Process: A cheapefficient process for makingsteel, developed around1850. It was developedindependently by Britishmanufacturer HenryBessemer. Techniqueinvolved injecting air intomolten iron to remove thecarbon and other impurities.1861Fredrick Law Olmsted:Landscape architectFredrick Law Olmstedspearheaded themovement for urbanparks. In 1857, he alongwith Calvert Vaux drew upa plan for Greenswardwhich was selected tobecome Central Park. 3. TranscontienentalRailroad: Known as thePacific railroad was a 1907mile railroad line constructedbetween 1863 and 1869across the western UnitedStates.1862 1863 215Homestead Act: Congresspassed a law in 1862 whichoffered 160 acres of landfree to any citizen orintended citizen who washead of the household. Thepeople who settled on thisland were Homesteaders.Those who moved to theplains made free standinghouses callled Soddys bystacking blocks of prairie turfJohn D. Rockefeller:Corporations such as thestandard oil company wereestablished by John D.Rockefeller around 1863. Hetook a different approach tomergers by joining withcompeting companies in trustagreements. Rockefeller used atrust or a relationship wherebyproperty is held by one party forthe benefit of another to gaincontrol of the oil industry inAmerica. 4. Sand Creek Massacre:Occurred in 1864, Cheyenneassumed they were underprotection of the U.S.government, returned toColorados Sand CreekReserve for winter. S. R. Curtissent a telegram to militiacolonel John Chivington. Theattack killed over 150 peoplemainly women and childrenGilded Age: Is the late19th century, from 1870 toabout 1900. The Gilded Agewas an era of rapideconomic growth,especially in the north andthe west.Tammany Hall: William M.Tweed became head ofTammany Hall, New York Cityspowerful democratic politicalmachine in 18681864 1867 1868 1870Oliver Kelley: In 1867,Oliver Kelley started thepatrons of husbandry, anorganization for farmersthat became popularlyknown as the grange . Itsoriginal purpose was toprovide a social outlet andan educational forum forisolated farm families1869Tweed Ring: Between1869 and 1871, BossTweed led the TweedRing, a group of corruptpoliticians, in defraudingthe city.This is an example text. Go ahead and replace it with your own text. It ismeant to give you a feeling of how the designs looks including text. 5. Battle of Little BigHorn: An armedengagement betweencombined forces of theLakota NorthernCheyenne, and Arapahotribes, against 7th CavalryRegiment of the U.S.Army. The battle occurredJune 25-26 1876 nearlittle Bighorn River. It wasan overwhelming victoryfor the tribes.Thomas Edison: Became a pioneer onthe new industrial frontier when heestablished the worlds first research lab inMenlo Park, New Jersey, in 1876. Edisonperfected the incandescent light bulb in1880 and later invented an entire systemfor producing and distributing electricalpower.Credit Mobilier: TheCredit Mobilier scandal of1872-1873 damaged careersof several gilded agepoliticians. Majorstockholders in the UnionPacific Railroad formed acompany, the CreditMobilier of America, andgave it contracts to build therailraod1872 1874 1876 215Alexander Graham Bell:In 1876 Alexander GrahamBell along with ThomasWatson unveiled thetelephone. The Telephonewas unveiled on March 10,1876. The telephone openedthe way for worldwidecommunication networksGeorge ArmsrtongCuster: Colonel Georg e A.Custer reported that the BlackHills had gold from the grassroots down in 1874, and agold rush was on. 6. 1877 1879 1880s215This is an example text. Goahead an replace it withyour own text.Nez Perce: NativeAmerican people living inthe Pacific Northwestregion of the UnitedStates.. In 1877 there wasa war between the NezPerce tribe and the U.S.Government.This is an example text. Goahead an replace it withyour own text.Chief Joseph: Chief Josephsucceeded his father asleader of the Wallowa bandof Nez Perce. He led his bandwhen they were forciblyremoved from their lands bythe federal government in1877Dumbbell Tenements:Tenements built in NewYork City after thetenement House Act of1879. The 1879 lawrequired that everyinhabitable room have awindow opening to planair.This is an example text. Goahead an replace it withyour own text.National FarmersAlliance: Was an organizedagrarian economicmovement among Americanfarmers that developed andflourished in the 1880s. Oneof the goals of theorganization was to end theadverse effects of the crop-liensystem on farmersfollowing the American CivilWar. 7. Mugwumps: Republican politicalactivists who bolted from theunited States Republican Party bysupporting Democratic candidateGrover Cleveland in the UnitedStates presidential election of 18841881 1883 1884 1886 215Colored FarmersAlliance: Was formed in1886 in the American stateof Texas. Both black andwhite farmers faceddifficulties due to the risisngprice of farming and thedecreasing of profit. TheSouthern Farmers Alliancedid not let black farmersjoin. A group of blackfarmers decided to organizetheir own alliance to fill theirneedsBooker T.Washingto n: Aprominent AfricanAmerican educator,Booker T. Washingtonbelieved that racismwould end onceblacks acquired usefullabor skills and provedtheir economic valueto society. By 1881, heheaded the TuskegeeNormal and IndustrialInstitution.Haymarket Affair: onMay 4, 1886, a laborprotest near ChicagosHaymarket Sqaureturned into a riot aftersomeone threw a bombat police. At least 8people died. 8 radicallabor activists wereconvicted in connectionwith the bombing.Joseph Pulitzer: AHungarian immigrantwho had bought the NewYork World in 1883. Hepioneered popularinnovations, such as largeSunday edition, comics,sports coverage, andwomens news.Samuel Gompers:Led the CigarMakers InternationalUnion to join withother craft unions in1886. The AFL withGompers as itspresident, focusedon collectivebargaining. 8. Interstate CommerceCommission: Aregulatory agency in theUnited States created bythe interstate commerceAct of 1887. The agencysoriginal purpose was toregulate railroads toensure fair rates, toeliminate ratediscrimination, and toregulate other aspects ofcommon carriers.1887 1888 1890 215George Eastman:Eastman developed aseries of more convenientalternatives to heavyglass plates previouslyused to develop pictures.In 1888, Eastmanintroduced the Kodakcamera which cost $25and included a 100picture roll of film.ShermanAntitrust Act:A law, enacted in1890 that wasintended toprevent thecreation ofmonopolies bymaking it illegalto establishtrusts thatinterfered withfree trade.Sitting Bull: A HunkpapaLakota holy man who led hispeople as a tribal chief duringyears of resisitance to U.S.Government policices. He waskilled on Standing Rock IndianReservation during an attemptto arrest him on Dec. 15 1890.Wounded Knee: The seventhcavalry slaughtered as many as 300mostly unarmed Native Americans onDecember 19, 1890, including severalchildren. Soldiers left the corpses onthe ground to freeze. The Battle ofWounded Knee brought the IndianWars to a end.Dawes Act: In1887, congresspassed the DawesAct aiming toAmericanize theNative Americans.The Act broke up thereservations andgave some of thereservation land toindividual NativeAmericans. 9. Populist: Amember of a UnitedStates political partyformed in 1891primarily torepresent agrarianinterests and toadvocate the freecoinage of silver andgovernment controlsof monopolies.Scab: Steelworkers finally calleda strike on June 29, 1892, afterthe company manager Henry ClayFrick, announced his plan to cutwages. Frick hired guards so hecould hire scabs, or strikebreakersto keep operating.1892Omaha Platform:Was the party programadopted at theformative conventionof the populist orpeoples party held inOmaha, Nebraska onJuly 4, 1892. TheOmaha Platform calledfor a wide range ofsocial reforms.Ida B. Wells: She became aneditor fro a newspaper. Radicaljustice was a persistent theme inher reporting. The events onMarch 9,1892 turned that themeinto a crusade. Three friends ofWells were lynched illegallyexecuted without trial.1891 215Vanderbilt Family: Was anAmerican family of Dutch originthat was prominent during theGilded Age. Their success beganwith the shipping and railroadempires of Cornelius Vanderbilt.They also built the BiltmoreHouse around 1892Southern Alliance:The Southern Alliancewas a short livedfootball leaguecompetition for teamsin the South of NewEngland. There wereno southern teams inthe football league. Itwas set up in 1892 andonly ran for oneseason.Ellis Island: Immigrants had to passinspection at immigration stations atEllis Island. 20% of people weredetained for a day or 2 and only about2% were denied entry. From 1892-1924 about 17 million people enteredthere. 10. Pullman Strike: Was a nationwide railroadstrike in the United States in the summer of1894. It pitted the American Railway Unionagainst the Pullman Company. Strikeshutdown most of the nations freight andpassenger traffic. Began in Pullman, Chicagoon May 11 when about 4000 factoryemployees of the Pullman Company started awildcat strike due to reduced wages.Segregation: The separation ofpeople on the basis of race. Thisseparated blacks and whites in publicand private facilities. These lawsbecame known as the Jim CrowLaws.1894 215Eugene V. Debs: Laborleaders felt that unionsshould include alllaborers in a specificindustry. Conceptcaptured theimmigration of Eugene V.Debs who at