History of Pharmacy and Drug Making

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History of pharmacy and drug making

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  • PHARMACY FROM THE ANCIENT

    WORLD TO 1100 AD

    PHARMACY IN THE MEDIEVAL

    WORLD

    2012.04.24.

    BPOP1.; Lecture 23. & 24.

  • History

    History of:

    Medicine

    Pharmacy

    People who use them

    Different in each country

    But it is partly similar history worldwide

    1. Natural substances used by primitive man

    2. Specialized individuals in communities

    3. Early civilizations: physician-pharmacist Historical evolution connected with medicine

    4. Developed civilizations: separation of professions Pharmacists

    Physicians

  • Why do we need to talk about this?

    History as heritage History of pharmacy = history of a profession Contribution of pharmacy to civilization.

    Who became pharmacists and why?

    What activities did they carry out?

    What skills did they need to perform their duties?

    Philosophy of the pharmacists role in society

    Ways of thinking as a pharmacist

    Narrative history Story of the past, appearance of pharmacy in different times

    Great names, interesting stories

    Lessons of history Medical literature

    Policy making, disease control

  • Sources of history in pharmacy

    Where can one find material about the history of pharmacy?

    1. Publications: books and journals

    2. Archives, letters

    3. Prescription books

    4. Oral history

    5. Pharmacy illustrations (images) in

    1. Books

    2. Art

    3. Photographs

    4. Equipments and machines in industry

    6. Pharmacy artefacts: early pestels and mortars, antiques

  • Products of pharmacists - nomenclature

    Products are described by many names Drugs

    Medicines

    Pharmaceuticals

    Therapeutic drugs

    Drug Nowdays can be referred to illicit substances

    Earlier it was used for active ingredients

    Medicine Product in a finished form (like Panadol tablet)

    Pharmaceutical Broader meaning including active ingredients, products,

    vaccines, etc.

    Interchangable?

    Do they mean the same?

  • Pharmacy from the ancient world to 1100 AD

  • Pharmacy from the ancient world

    Development of human species and civilizations

    Prehistoric men: Hunter-gatherer - Food producer

    Early civilizations in Babylonia, Egypt, China 4000 B.C. Discovery of tools, writing/symbols

    Specialization

    Disease, illness and accidents needed treatment

    Selected specialists treated symptoms

    Plants and minerals in nature (early folk medicine)

    food-poison-drug?

    Called doctor, wise woman, medicine man, priest Mixture of: instinct + magic + confusion

    Practiced pharmaco-magic

    Later instinct and magic changed to Empiricism (not science jet) Careful observation, systematic observations, Trial and error method

    Causes of illnesses were mostly unknown

    Due to supernatural causes, evil or sins

  • Mesopotamian civilisations, 3000 BC 539 BC

    First urban civilisation around 4000 BC

    Tigris and Euphrates rivers

    Babylon (2200-1300 BC)

    Babylonian Assyrian medicine Used plant drugs, wound washing, wines, oinments

    Manufactured soap, vinegar, plant extracts

    King Hammurabi (1795-1750 BC)

    Hammurabis code regulated medical and surgical practice

    Apothecaries: Separation of diagnosis and treatment from preparation of medicines

    Mesopotomian drug formulas were not quantitative

    Apothecary = perfumer Preparation of volatile oils and unguents

    king Assur-Bani-Pal (668-627 BC)

    Library in Ninive

    Clay tablets: 800 fragments contain information on Babylonian medical treatments

  • Egyptian civilisations, 3000 BC 1200 BC

    Nile valley

    Well documented history on:

    tombs, ceramic and papyrus

    Formulation of medicines

    Wine, beer and honey as vehicles for liquid medicines

    Honey for incorporation of solids in pills

    Waxes for oinments

    Papyrus Ebers (1500 BC) ~ 20mx30cm Medical-pharmaceutical dissertation ~ 4m

    875 prescriptions, 700 drugs (plant, animal, mineral)

    21 methods against coughing, 18 skin disorders, etc

    Dosage forms

    Infusions , Decoctions, Pills, Suppositories

    Recipes were stated quantitatevly

    Use of: mortars, handmills, sieves and balances

    Pastophor: preparer of medicines (separated from physicians)

  • Imhotep (2635 2595 BC)

    Egyptian polymath, chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest, architect - Pyramid of Djoser

    probably acoauthor of Edwin Smith papyrus

    Anatomical observations and cures

    Greeks identified him with Asklepios

    God of medicine and healing

    The rod of Asclepius, a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today.

    twisting the worm around a stick may have inspired the symbol in case of dracunculiasis

    Egyptian civilisations, 3000 BC 1200 BC

  • Greek civilisations, 1250 BC 285 BC

    Crete Bronze Age culture

    Script for writing was developed

    Iron melting

    Greek empire

    Mesopotamian and Egyptian culture had great influence

    on Greek culture

    Early philosophers theories

    Heraclitus of Ephesus: all things were composed of two types of

    opposites - wet/dry and hot/cold controlled by Logos

    Empedocles: eveything is made up of four elements fire, air,

    water and earth

  • Greek civilisations, 1250 BC 285 BC

    Hippocrates (460-377 BC)

    Hippocratean Corpus (collection of Ancient Greek medical works)

    Theory of four liquid humours (humoralpathology) Blood

    Phlegm

    Yellow bile

    Black bile

    Disease was the result of excess of one of

    these liquid humours, and the

    treatment is to eliminate it from the body

    Main principles for the practice medicine

    Hippocratic Oath, primum nil nocere!

    Precise anamnesis (observation) of the patient

  • Greek civilisations, 1250 BC 285 BC

    Aristotle (384-322 BC)

    Classification of animals to genera and species

    Polymath: botany, physics, anatomy,

    physiology, mathematics

    Theophrastus (372-287 BC)

    Established the discipline of botany

    Attacking the thoory of four elements

    Stressing

    Empirical approach

    Experimental evidence

  • Roman civilisations, 275 BC 476 AD

    Expansion of the Roman epire

    Overruning two literate nations: Greeks and Hebrews

    Advances in engineering (sewage disposal systems, aquaducts), law and govrenment

    Adoptation of greek medicine

    Disseminating medical knowledge in the empire

    Celsus (20-50 AD)

    Medical practioneer, encyclopaedist

    Translated and edited other peoples work

    De Medicina (8 books)

    250 drugs, 100 surgical procedures

  • Roman civilisations, 275 BC 476 AD

    Dioscorides (50-100 AD)

    Greek physician, pharmacologist and botanist

    Surgeon of the emperors army

    De Materia Medica ("Regarding Medical Materials")

    List of materials of animal, plant and mineral origin

    "precursor to all modern pharmacopeias

    It remained in use until about 1600 BC

    It was circulated in Latin, Greek, and Arabic

    For every illness there is a specific plant remedy

  • Roman civilisations, 275 BC 476 AD

    Galen (129-199 AD)

    Physician and surgeon of gladiators

    Experiments: dissected animals

    Developed the humoral pathology scheme

    Combining earlier theories like Hippocratic theory and the four temperaments of man

    All illness is the result of imbalance between these elements

    Apotheca = storeroom for drugs

    Galenicals = creams and ointments

    Four bodily fluids affect human

    personality and behaviors

    1. sanguine (pleasure-seeking

    and sociable)

    2. choleric (ambitious and

    leader-like)

    3. melancholic (introverted

    and thoughtful)

    4. phlegmatic (relaxed and

    quiet)

  • Arabian civilisations, 400 AD 1100 AD

    Arab empire

    Greek and Roman works were translated to Arabic

    Apothecary shops appeared (850 AD)

    Separation of medicine from pharmacy

    Precise education

    High code of ethics

    Wide range of medicines

    Movement of scholars from Persia

    Religious oppression

    To the west: Italy, France

  • Arabian civilisations, 400 AD 1100 AD

    Rhazes (865-925 AD)

    (Mohammad-e Zakari-ye Rzi) the Persian Galen

    Physician at Baghdads great hospital

    Writer, chemist and teacher

    Well equiped laboratory

    Book of Medicine

    Encyclopedia derived from Greek, Arabic, Persian and Indian sources

    Use of pills

    differentiated smallpox from measles

  • Arabian civilisations, 400 AD 1100 AD

    Avicenna (980-1037 AD) (Ibn Sina)

    Studied medicine at age 15

    writing on philosophy, astronomy, alchemy, geology,

    psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics

    Canon of Medicine (al-Qanum)

    Containing teachings from Hippocrates, Galen and

    Aristotle

    5 books, 760 drugs and their antidotes

    Translated to Latin

    text-book in the universities of

    medieval Europe

    Silvering of pills

  • By the end of th 11th century

    Basic conditions for the development of a separate profession were available:

    Nat