Historical setting in which Sociology appeared as a discipline.
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- 1.Historical setting in which Sociology appeared as a discipline. Presented By Guannu Kuluku Dezon
2. Introduction: History of the Discipline Sociologyis a relatively new academic discipline which emerged in the early 19 th century in response to the challenges of modernity.Increasingmobility and technological advances resulted in the increasing exposure of people to cultures and societies different from their own. 3. Definition: What is Sociology? SociologyThe systematic study of social behavior in human groups. Examines the influence of social relationships on peoples attitudes and behavior. Studies how societies are established and change 4. TheSociological ImaginationDefinition: Anawareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society.Itis the ability to view our own society as an outsider might, rather than from the perspective of our limited experiences and cultural biases. 5. Developing the Sociological Imagination Theory in Practice Research in Action The Significance of Social Inequality Speaking Across Race, Gender, and National Boundaries Social Policy Throughout the World 6. Sociology Inand the Social Sciencescontrast to other social sciences, sociology emphasizes the influence that groups can have on peoples behavior and attitudes and the ways in which people shape society. 7. Sociologyand Common SenseKnowledgethat relies on common sense is not always reliable.Sociologistsmust test and analyze each piece of information that they use. 8. What is Sociological Theory? Theory: An attempt to explain events, forces, materials, ideas or behavior in a comprehensive manner. Sociological Theories: Seek to explain problems, actions, or behavior. Effective theories should explain and predict. Sociologists employ theories to examine the relationships between observations or data that may seem completely unrelated. 9. Historical setting of Sociology Sociologybegan in the middle nineteenth century. Four Factors lead to the development of Sociology:1.Industrial Revolution: Moving from close- knit agricultural communities to cities traditional norms and values could no longer be counted on.2.American and French revolutions: people began to question social life (the belief that people have inalienable rights) 10. Historical setting of Sociology cont. 3.Imperialism: exposure to different cultures4.Success of the natural sciences: The use of the scientific method 11. Development of Sociology Prominent Contributors to Sociological ThoughtAuguste Comte18571798Harriet Martineau1802Herbert Spencer Karl Marx18761820190318181883mile Durkeim1858Jane Addams1860George Herbert Mead186419351863Max Weber Charles Horton Cooley W.E.B. Du Bois1931 1920186419291868Talcott ParsonsThe time lines shown here give an idea of relative chronology.19171963 1902Robert Merton19791910C. Wright Mills1916Erving Goffman19221962 1982 12. Prominent Contributors to Sociological ThoughtAuguste Comte: Founder (Father) of Sociology 1. Interested in how society functions 2. Social Static 3. Social Dynamic Sociology could discover social principles and those principles could be used for social reform. 4. Positivism: Applying the scientific approach (scientific method ) to the social world. 1798-1857 13. Comte Cont... Coinedthe term Sociology From the Greek logos study of From the Latin socius companion or being with others 14. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought 1.The First Feminist Sociologist2.Drew an Analogy Between The Plight of Women And Slavery Said Women Were Oppressed Because They Had No Economy Power3.Society In America: family, race, gender, politics and religionHarriet Martineau 1802 - 1876 15. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought 1.Influenced by Charles Darwin Herbert Spencer 2.Society evolve from lower (Barbarian) to higher (Civilized) forms. The most capable and intelligent (Fittest) surviveimproving society 3.Coined the term Survival of the Fittest. 4.Said the Fittest Society Was the best so anyone sick, disenfranchised, poor, should not be helped. This would make the society weak.1820 - 1903 16. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought 1.There will always be conflict between the Have and Have Nots-Class conflict 2. Bourgeoisie- Own the means of production 3.Proletariat Own their own labor. This conflict must result in revolution by the middle class resulting in a classless societyKarl Marx 1818 1883 17. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought 1.Society exists because of consensus (Agreement) to follow the rules to keep society stable 2.Mechanical Solidarity Social pressure for conformity, tradition and familyEmile Durkheim 1858 - 1917 18. Emile Durkheim Cont... 3.Organic Solidarity Social InterdependencyHighly specialized rolesSociety dependent on goods and services. 4. He wanted to show how social forces affect peoples behavior. 5. Anomie- The breaking down of the controlling influences of society. - People become detached and do not have enough moral guidance.-Sociologists intervene by creating new social groups to provide a sense of belonging. 6.SUICIDE- Social integration (How closely people are tied to their social group) People with weaker ties are more likely to commit suicide-Protestant males, unmarried are more likely to commit suicide 19. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought 1. Interested in the personal meaning people attach to their behavior and the behavior of others.2. Verstehen Being able to put yourself in someone elses shoes.3. Religion is the central force in social change.4. Protestant Ethic- Sociology should be Value free.Max Weber 1864 - 1920 20. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought 1.First Social Worker 2.Founder Hull House in Chicago (1889)-Provided food, education, medical care for the poor 3.First American woman and only sociologist to received a noble peace prize.Jane Addams 1860 1935 21. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought Was a philosopher at the University of Chicago who was a pragmatist. Def Pragmatism- Test the truth of a belief by its actual consequences. Tries to capture the created, socially constructed realityDef Phenomenology Things do not have meaning in and of themselves, their meaning is created by like minded groups defining them.George Herbert Mead1863-1961 22. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought 1.Interested in race relations 2.He wanted to eliminate social injustice 3.The Philadelphia Negro, the souls of black folk 4.Founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) WITH Jane Addams and others in 1909.W.E.B. Du Bois 1868 - 1963 23. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought 1.In 1956- Urged sociologists to become more involved in social reform. 2.Power Elite- Top leaders in business, politics, and the military are a treat to freedomC. Wright Mills 1916 - 1962 24. Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology 1. Symbolic Interactionism 2.Functionalist ( Functional Analysis) 3.Conflict 25. Functionalist Perspective Societyis a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. Society is held together through consensus - people agree to what is best for society and work together to ensure a stable social system. Study division of work in family functions served by education Sociologists Herbert Spencer/Emile Durkheim 26. Conflict Perspective Thereare forces in society that promote competition and change.Conflictin society arises over competition for scarce resources and social change is an inevitable feature of society.Studydecision making in the family; relationships of racial groups; labor disputes Sociologists Karl Marx 27. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Individualsattach meaning to their own actions and to the actions of others; interaction between people takes place through the use of symbols.Studieshow people interact with one another in societyStudychild development; relationships within groups; mate selection 28. Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Levels 1.of AnalysisMacro level analysis: Functionalists and conflict theorists - examine large-scale patterns in society Homelessness = changes in society (family structure, outsourcing, failing economy) 2. Micro level of analysis: symbolic interactionists examine small scale patterns in society homeless ( patterns of communication both verbal and nonverbal) 29. Conclusion Althoughsociology emerged from Comtes vision of a discipline that would subsume all other areas of scientific inquiry, that was not to be the future of sociology. Far from replacing the other sciences, sociology has taken its place as a particular perspectives for investigating human social life. 30. Thank You