Historical Overview Of Religious Theories
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2. THEORETICAL PARADIGMS
- 1) THE ORIGIN OF RELIGIONS (Late 1700s Early 1900s)
- Social E volutionism
- Scientific Racism
- 2) THE FUNCTION OF RELIGIONS (Early 1900s 1960s)
- Structural Functionalism
- 3) THE MEANINGS OF RELIGIONS AND THEIR
- ARTICULATIONS WITH SOCIETY AND THE INDIVIDUAL
- (1960s to the Present)
- Symbolic and Interpretive Interactionism
- Interpretive/Symbolic Anthropology
- Post Structuralism
- Technological, intellectual, and aesthetic development was thriving in China, India, the Arab World, and the Italian City States.
- Land and sea routes connected the great cities of these regions to foster cultural and economic exchange.
WHILE MOST OF EUROPE WAS IN THE DARK AGES 4. THE EUROPEAN FEUDAL ESTATE SYSTEM 5.
- A few major events were responsible for the rise and expansion of European societies after 1400:
- The withdrawal of China from world trade networks.
- The exploratory voyage of Vasco Da Gama around the southern tip of Africa.
- Columbus exploratory voyage to the Western Hemisphere.
6. GUTENBERG IS CREDITED WITH INVENTING THE MOVEABLE TYPE PRINTING PRESS AROUND 1450.THIS HAD A MONUMENTAL IMPACT ON EUROPEAN CULTURE.BOOKS, NEWSPAPERS, PAMPHLETS, ETC., BECAME AVAILABLE AND AFFORDABLE.THIS FOSTERED THE ESCALATION OF LITERACY AND EDUCATION AMONG COMMON PEOPLES, WHICHIN TURNSTIMULATED MORE INDEPENDENT THOUGHT, AND SOCIAL DIALOGUE, AND DEBATE. 7.
- By 1500, the Atlantic World, dominated by Europe, and based in the trade of sugar, slaves, gold, and silver was in place.
- Through these lucrative endeavors, European societies began to acquire great wealth and power.
- Spreading Christianity was an integral aspect of this European expansion.
THE ATLANTIC WORLD 8. 1517 THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
- A movement in Europe that began with Martin Luthers opposition to the corruption of Catholicism.
- Divided Christianity between Catholicism and a number of Protestant denominations.
- Contributed to a sociocultural milieu in Europe that fostered science, technology, modern philosophy, and capitalism.
9. 1648 WESTPHALIA PEACE ACCORD
- Considered to be the culmination of the Protestant Reformation.
- Established national boundaries in Europe.
- Ended the political dominance of the Holy Roman Empire.
- Instigated the transformation in the political organization of European powers from feudal states to nation states.
- FIRST PHASE:
- EMPIRICISM: Scientific knowledge can be acquired through observing phenomena.
- MECHANICAL PHILOSOPHY: Nature follows natural, physical laws.
- CHEMICAL PHILOSOPHY: Matter functions according to active, vital principles.
- MATHEMATIZATION: Quantitative methods were applied to the measurement of physical phenomena.
- SECOND PHASE:The application of empirical analysis and mechanistic explanations to:
- Human Personality
- Human Development
- Cultures and societies and their development
1500s - 1700s EUROPEAN AGE OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY 11.
- The concept of self-rule replaces the divine right of kings to rule over society.
- Humanistic ideas about freedom, equality, and the right to happiness in this life emerge.
- Science develops in opposition to religion.
- The assertion that God hath created all men equal, morphs into nature hath created all men equal.
1700s THE EUROPEAN ENLIGHTENMENT 12. THE EUROPEAN ENLIGHTENMENT AND NATURAL RELIGION
- DEISM:A pure natural religion.
- A Creator God made the world, but leaves it to operate according to natural laws, a parallel set of moral laws to guide human conduct, and the promise of an afterlife that rewards good and punishes evil.
- This was the religion of the very first humans, and the best hope for humanity is that it be revived and practiced universally as a BROTHERHOOD by all peoples throughout the globe.
- Modernity is the sense that the present is discontinuous with the past, that through social and cultural progress or decline, life in the present is fundamentally different from the past.
- This world view contrasts with tradition, which is the sense that the present is continuous with the past.
- However, the sense that the present is discontinuous with the past is an illusion thatparadoxically--creates modernity itself.
- What has changed issocial memory ; we have disconnected most of our practices and ideas from our collective memory of their meaning, and what we believe to be their origins.
- The Western concept of the centered subject was elemental to earlier phases of modernity.
- With late modernity, the subject is de-centered and fragmented.
14. LATE 1700s-1800s THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
- Scientific and technological advances are applied to agriculture, transportation, and industry.
- An economic system in which the means of production--land and capital goods--are privately owned, and the labor of workers becomes the property of owners.
- Capital, generated for the most part by the labor of workers, is monopolized by owners and invested for individual profit.
- Commodities and services are produced for the sole purpose of profit in the marketplace.
- Capitalism collapses if it does not continually expand.
- Capitalism only functions through inequality.
CAPITALISM 16. MARXS CRITIQUE
- MID 1800s: The history of the world is a history of class struggle between the haves and have nots.
- Every aspect of society is part of a superstructure determined by its economic base.
- Religion is part of the superstructure, and a false ideology that provides excuses for the oppressors to maintain the inequitable status quo.
- Belief in god or gods is an oppressive by-product of class struggle and should be dismissed.
- The interstitial relationship of technology and capitalism resulted in an exponential escalation in the production of goods.
- Raw materials, new markets, and cheap or slave labor were required for this escalation of production.
- European powers embarked upon a second era of imperial expansion in order to control the material and human resources of other societies throughout the globe.
LATE 1700s-EARLY 1900s THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM 18. CONSTRUCTING AND CONTROLLING THE OTHER
- Europeans constructed the OTHER they sought to dominate; while, in turn, Europeans shaped their identities in contrast to the Other.
- Methods of control included:
- Religious conversion
- Military Force
- Collecting knowledge about the colonized to facilitate domination
19. THE ENLIGHTENMENT TABLE|||||| // / /OTHERS NOT FULLYHUMAN HUMAN 20.
- The Origin of Species , 1859.
- "Much light will be shed on the origin of man (sic) and his history (p. 459).
- Darwins biological studies of evolution paralleled an interest in social evolution that produced a body of knowledge that supported social, economic, and political policies.
- A theory developed by Herbert Spencer when he applied new scientific discoveries to the study of society.
- This theory placed the worlds societies on an evolutionary scale of primitive to civilized.
22. SCIENTIFIC RACISM
- Based on faulty science and fabricated data.
- Divided humans into different races based on biological differences.
- These racial categories were then situated on an evolutionary hierarchy.
- In actuality, race is a social construction with no biological foundation.
- However, the concept of race continues to have profound social ramifications for people throughout the global community.
23. SIR EDWARD B. TYLOR 1832-1917
- A social evolutionist.
- He asserted that the development of religions from one stage to the next is universal throughout the worlds cultures:
- ANIMISM:Belief in souls, and that all things in the world are endowed with a soul.
- TOTEMISM:Religious practices centered around animals, plants, or other aspects of the natural world held to be ancestral or closely identified with a group and its individuals.
- POLYTHEISM:Belief in more than one, or many gods.