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  • High Temperature Fatigue and Fatigue Damage Process of

    Aggregate-Asphalt Mixes

    by

    Bor-Wen Tsai

    Report to California Department of Transportation

    University of California at BerkeleyInstitute of Transportation Studies

    Pavement Research Center

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This report was partially funded through the Federal Highway Administration National

    Cooperative Highway Research Program Project 9-20, Performance-Related Specifications for

    Hot-Mix Asphalt Construction.

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    Table of Contents

    Table of Contents............................................................................................................................ v

    List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... xv

    List of Tables ......................................................................................................................... xxxviii

    Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Background ......................................................................................................................... 1

    1.2 Research Objectives............................................................................................................ 6

    1.3 Literature Review................................................................................................................ 7

    1.3.1 History of Asphalt Concrete Fatigue Model Development ........................................ 7

    1.3.2 Crack Initiation and Crack Propagation.................................................................... 10

    1.3.3 High Temperature Fatigue Test ................................................................................ 12

    1.3.4 Compound Strain-Based Fatigue Loading................................................................ 16

    1.3.5 The Weibull Function ............................................................................................... 18

    1.3.6 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Prediction ................................................................... 19

    1.3.7 Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Tests.................................................................... 20

    1.3.8 Shift Factor................................................................................................................ 21

    1.4 Research Organization ...................................................................................................... 25

    2.0 Data Sources ..................................................................................................................... 27

    2.1 WesTrack Project.............................................................................................................. 27

    2.1.1 Track Characteristics ................................................................................................ 28

    2.1.2 Mix Characteristics ................................................................................................... 28

    2.1.3 Traffic ....................................................................................................................... 30

    2.1.4 Temperature .............................................................................................................. 34

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    2.2 CAL/APT HVS Project..................................................................................................... 35

    2.2.1 Section 503RF........................................................................................................... 35

    2.2.2 Trafficking Plan ........................................................................................................ 36

    2.2.3 Multi-Depth Deflectometer (MDD).......................................................................... 38

    2.3 Laboratory Test Data ........................................................................................................ 38

    3.0 Test Plan, Specimen Preparation, and Test Setup............................................................. 43

    3.1 Test Purpose...................................................................................................................... 43

    3.2 Test Setup.......................................................................................................................... 44

    3.2.1 Conventional Flexural Controlled-Strain Fatigue Test Setup................................... 44

    3.2.2 Modified Flexural Controlled-Strain Fatigue Test Setup ......................................... 45

    3.2.3 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System ......................................................... 48

    3.3 Specimen Preparation ....................................................................................................... 53

    3.3.1 Gradation Curves of WesTrack ................................................................................ 53

    3.3.2 Procedure of Specimen Preparation for WesTrack................................................... 54

    3.4 Test Plan............................................................................................................................ 60

    3.4.1 High Temperature Modified Flexural Controlled-Strain Fatigue Test ..................... 60

    3.4.2 Temperature Susceptibility Fatigue Test with Conventional Setup ......................... 62

    3.4.3 Fatigue Test with Various Gradation Types ............................................................. 62

    3.4.4 Flexural Frequency Sweep Test................................................................................ 63

    3.4.5 Varied-Strain Fatigue Test ........................................................................................ 64

    3.4.6 Varied-Temperature Fatigue Test ............................................................................. 64

    4.0 Fatigue Test Results and Analysis .................................................................................... 67

    4.1 Background ....................................................................................................................... 67

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    4.1.1 Interpretation of Weibull Curves .............................................................................. 68

    4.1.2 Crack Initiation and Weibull Curves ........................................................................ 72

    4.2 Fatigue Tests at 20oC ........................................................................................................ 75

    4.3 Temperature Susceptibility Fatigue Test (Field) .............................................................. 92

    4.4 Temperature Susceptibility Fatigue Test (Laboratory)..................................................... 94

    4.5 High Temperature Flexural Controlled-Strain Fatigue Test ............................................. 95

    4.6 Fatigue Test with Various Gradation Types ................................................................... 100

    4.7 Pooled Fatigue Tests ....................................................................................................... 101

    4.8 Conventional Fatigue Analysis for WesTrack Project.................................................... 102

    4.8.1 Model Selection ...................................................................................................... 102

    4.8.2 Mallows pC Statistic............................................................................................. 103

    4.8.3 Data Description ..................................................................................................... 104

    4.8.4 A Regression Example: Coarse Gradation ............................................................. 104

    4.8.5 Regression Analysis Results ................................................................................... 111

    4.9 Flexural Frequency Sweep Test...................................................................................... 114

    4.9.1 Test Results............................................................................................................. 114

    4.9.2 Fitting with Gamma Distribution Function............................................................. 118

    4.10 Varied-Strain Fatigue Test .......................................................................................... 121

    4.10.1 The Strain Effect on Weibull Curves...................................................................... 121

    4.10.2 A Hypothesis of Strain-Caused Fatigue Damage ................................................... 122

    4.10.3 Test Results and Analysis ....................................................................................... 126

    4.11 Varied-Temperature Fatigue Test ............................................................................... 135

    4.11.1 The Temperature Effect on Weibull Curves........................................................... 135

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    4.11.2 A Hypothesis of Temperature-Caused Fatigue Damage ........................................ 137

    4.11.3 Test Results and Analysis ....................................................................................... 138

    4.12 Findings and Discussions............................................................................................ 144

    4.12.1 Findings in Fatigue Test Results and Regression Analysis .................................... 144