Hazel Report

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  • 8/12/2019 Hazel Report


  • 8/12/2019 Hazel Report


  • 8/12/2019 Hazel Report


    1. A group is composed two or more persons interactingwith each other, guided by a set of norms

    2. A group is a specified number of individuals whereeach recognizes members are distinct from nonmembers each has a sense of what others do andthink as well as what the purpose of the association ofgrouping is. The word group is often used to refer totwo or more people coming together. However asocial group consist of two or more people whointeract recurrently in a patterned way and whorecognize that they constitute a distinct social unit.

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    3. Three meanings are always implied by the term group

    A. Some people use it to refer to a set of individuals withsome similar characteristics, such as age or0ccupation. This meaning emphasizes the sharing oftraits and its better called a social category

    B. Individuals sometimes speak of a group as anynumber of individuals who meet occationally orregularly and have a sense of who is present orabsent.

    C. Still others use group to mean a Specific numbers ofindividuals, where each recognizes members fromnonmembers.

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    Social group differ from social aggregates , whichare made up of people who happen to be in the

    same place but share little else.

    A social group also differs from a statiscal group,

    which consist of people classified together becausethey share certain characteristics

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    1. Permanence beyond meetings and members thatis even when members are dispersed.

    2. Means for identifying members

    3. Mechanism for recruiting new members

    4. Goals or purposes

    5. Socials statues and roles i.e nor for behavior

    6. Means for controlling members behavior

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    The social unit called a group must beidentifiable as such, both by its members and byoutside observers

    The group has a social structure in the sense thateach member, or person, has a position relatedto other positions

    There are individual roles in the group.

    Reciprocal relations are essential to the group

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    Every group has a norms of behavior that influence

    the way in which the roles are enacted.

    The members of the group have certain commoninterest and values.

    Group activity, if not the very existence of the groupitself, must be directed towards some social goal orgoals

    A group must have relative permanence

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    Common Ancestry Is the tradionally the strongest tie that binds

    human being in their social relations, althoughits importancs has been greatly lessened in themodern, complex and large scale societies

    Territory shared in common Territorial proximity is a good basis for a groups

    classification, people comprimising a group mustbe limited to a physical territory

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    Similar bodily characteristics In the primative societies the similarity of biological

    characteristics is closely allied to the facts of commonancestry, as well as common territory.

    Common interest

    Is the basis for a great variety of modern socialgroupings. In fact the interest group is sociologicallymore significant than the other group

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    Primary group As a group that is characterized by intimate face-to-

    face relationship and close association andcooperation.

    Are groups in which relationship are spontaneous,personal, and intimate.

    Secondary group Are groups in which relationship are impersonal

    and widely separate Larger than primary groups and their members do

    not necessarily interact with all other member

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    In-groups and Out-groups In group- a group that members use as a point

    of reference

    Out group- those who are not belong to in-group are part of the out group

    Informal and Formal Groups Informal group- arises spontaneously out of the

    interaction of two or more persons.

    Formal groups- are groups where the purposeand objectives are explicity labeled

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    Individuals in the pressence of others becomearoused or motivated to perform some kinds ofphysical and social skills at higher levels ofexcellence than they would if they were alone.

    An individual is stimulated by the pressence ofothers is called social facilitation.

    The pressence of others ma inhibit the learning ofnew subject matter; individuals can assimilateinformation more rapidly by themeselves . Thissituation is called social inhibitation in which thepressence of others blocks or retards otherperformance.

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    Diagramming social relationship Moreno contended that the social scientist could onlystudy the mix of feelings that persons have about oneanother in any social relationship, this approach is

    called sociometry.Sociometry Helps us understand how people interrelate in social

    relationship in which everyone knows everybody else

    Social network A persons social network consist of all those people

    to whom he/she is directly and indirectly linked

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    Size Groups vary in times of their sizes. Social relationships

    range in numbers from two persons up to the entirepopulation.

    Structure Refers to the patterning of actuals behavior, when

    people do the same things repeatedly in the same time

    circumtances, we refer to the situation as havingstucture

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    Bureaucracy refers to a formal, rationally organized, and

    highly orgnized social structure with clearly definedpatterns of activity in which, ideally, every series ofactions is fundamentally related to organizationspurpose.

    It is a pyramid of personnel who conduct, rationally, thework of a large organization. Its features include1) Specialization

    2) Merit appointment3) Impersonality4) Chain of command to see that the orders are

    faithfully followed.

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    A clear-cut division of labor

    Hierarchical delegation of power and responsability

    Rules and regulations


    Employment based on technical qualifications

    Distinction between public and private spheres

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    Webers model about bureaucracy is really ideal.Less-than-ideal bureaucracy may result in thefollowing:

    Allienation- this is the term used by Karl Marx todescribe the sense of the loss and disconnectednessthat is supposed to be present among workers incapitalistic societies

    Ritualism- bureaucracy demands strict adherenceto rules in the order to ensure reliability, but therules may take on a symbolic meaning far beyondtheir original rational intent.

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    Incompetence- according to the model of weber,workers are hired in the organization because they

    are technically competent, and it is the responsibilityof the supervisor to retain, fire, or demote thoseworkers who are incompetent.

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