Harvest and Post-Harvest

of 46 /46
Prior Classes - Soil Management Site Selection, Soil Fertility, Soil Biology Warren Roberts George Kuepper

Embed Size (px)


Warren Roberts/George Kuepper Oklahoma Beginning Farmer & Rancher Program 2013 Horticulture #3: July 13 tips for handling fruits and vegetables to preserve nutrition and quality; food safety

Transcript of Harvest and Post-Harvest

Page 1: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Prior Classes - Soil ManagementSite Selection, Soil Fertility, Soil Biology

Warren RobertsGeorge Kuepper

Page 2: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Harvest & Post-Harvest

Warren RobertsGeorge Kuepper

Page 3: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Harvest of Fruits and Vegetables

• Difference between Fruits and Vegetables

Page 4: Harvest and Post-Harvest


• Fruit: The Developed Ovary of a Seed Plant• The Part of a Plant that Developed from a Flower

Page 5: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Fruits - Examples• Apples• Pears• Plums• Peaches• Oranges• Grapefruit• Cherries

Page 6: Harvest and Post-Harvest


• Any Plant whose Fruit, Seeds, Roots, Tubers, Bulbs, Stems, Leaves, or Flower Parts are used for Food

• The Edible Part of a Plant

Page 7: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Vegetables - Examples• Watermelon• Cantaloupe• Pumpkin• Squash• Cucumber• Tomatoes• Peppers• Eggplant• Sweet Corn• Beans and Peas

Page 8: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Vegetables - Leaf• Lettuce• Spinach• Swiss Chard• Kale• Collards• Turnip Greens• Mustard• Poke• Dandelion• Lambs Quarters• Pigweed

Page 9: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Vegetables - Stems

• Asparagus• Broccoli (Also flowers)• Cauliflower (Also flowers)• Celery• Garlic• Leek• Onion (not a root)• Potato (not a root)

Page 10: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Vegetables - Roots

• Sweet Potatoes• Carrot • Beet • Radish• Turnip

Page 11: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Vegetables – Nuts, Seeds, Grains

• All are Formed from Flowers• All Have Seeds• All are Fruits

Page 12: Harvest and Post-Harvest


• Nearly All Fruits are Vegetables• Many Vegetables are Fruits

•All Vegetables and All Fruits are Alive at the Time of Harvest

Page 13: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Main Objectives

• Maintain Quality During Shipping• Maintain Quality on Shelf• Maintain Quality until Consumption• Live Long and Prosper

Page 14: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Live Vegetables

• Respiration is Occurring• Transpiration is Occurring• Metabolism is Occurring

Page 15: Harvest and Post-Harvest


• Respiration: Process by which carbohydrates, proteins, fats, etc are broken down into energy plus carbon dioxide plus water vapor.• Transpiration: Water movement from root through plant to atmosphere• Metabolism: Buildup or Breakdown of Substances

Page 16: Harvest and Post-Harvest


• Tissue is Being Broken Down• Water is Being Given Off

Page 17: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Respiration Rates

• Very Low (Long Storage)•Dried Fruits•Nuts

Page 18: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Respiration Rates

• Low (Fairly Long Storage)•Apples•Garlic•Onions•Potatoes•Sweetpotatoes

Page 19: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Respiration Rates

• Moderate (Moderate Storage)•Cabbage•Carrots•Lettuce•Peaches•Pears•Peppers•Plums •Tomatoes

Page 20: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Respiration Rates

• High (Short Storage)•Brussel Sprouts•Green Onions•Snap Beans

Page 21: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Respiration Rates

• Very High (Very Short Storage)•Asparagus•Broccoli•Mushrooms•Peas•Sweet Corn

Page 22: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Avoid Dehydration

• Lower the Temperature• Raise the Humidity

Page 23: Harvest and Post-Harvest


• Forced Cold Air•Good Air Movement

• Cold Water•Avoid Bacterial Contamination

Page 24: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Chilling Injury(Don’t Overdo It)

Page 25: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Storage Temperatures (Cold 30-40)

• Beans• Broccoli• Cabbage• Green Onions• Leafy Greens• Peas• Sweet Corn• Turnips

Page 26: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Storage Temperatures (Cool 40-50)

• Cucumbers• Eggplant• Okra• Peppers• Squash• Sweetpotatoes• Tomatoes• Watermelons

Page 27: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Storage Humidity (95-100%)

• Asparagus• Beets• Broccoli• Cabbage• Green Onions• Leafy Greens• Peas• Sweet Corn

Page 28: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Storage Humidity (90-95%)

• Beans• Eggplant• Okra• Peaches• Peppers• Tomatoes• Squash• Sweetpotatoes• Tomatoes• Watermelons

Page 29: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Cool and Dry Storage

• Winter Squash• Pumpkins• Onions

• (Outer Layer Resists Water Loss)

Page 31: Harvest and Post-Harvest


• A ripening hormone which promotes senescence (early death)• Loss of Green Color• Toughening of Tissues• Potato Sprouting• Tissue Softening• Speeds Ripening (Aging) Process

Page 32: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Producers of Ethylene (Sweet Smell)

• Apples• Pears• Plums• Cantaloupes• Peaches• Bananas

Page 33: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Sensitive to Ethylene (Less Smell)• Cabbage, Broccoli• Carrots• Cucumbers• Eggplant• Okra• Peppers• Peas• Summer Squash• Sweetpotatoes• Tomatoes• Watermelons

Page 34: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Ethylene and Vegetable Storage

• Do not Store Ethylene Producers near Ethylene Sensitive Foods• Just Don’t Do It• Wouldn’t be Prudent• But, if you have to do it,

Page 35: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Effect of Ethylene

• Much less pronounced at 32 degrees than at 85 degrees• Keep it Cool

Page 36: Harvest and Post-Harvest

When to Harvest

• When Outside Temperature is Cool• Primarily early in the morning• When Cloudy, if Possible•Less Heat stored in Fruit and Vegetable•Slower Metabolism, Slower Respiration, Less Heat Produced

Page 37: Harvest and Post-Harvest

When to Harvest – What Stage?

• Beans – Seeds Visible but Small• Broccoli – Blooms Tightly Closed• Cabbage – Heads Tight• Cantaloupes – Stem Separates When

Pulled• Sweet corn – Full Seeds, Soft Seeds• Cucumber – Green Skin, Soft Seeds• Eggplant – Glossy, Soft Skin• Okra – Tender Pods

Page 38: Harvest and Post-Harvest

When to Harvest – What Stage?• Onions – Yellow tops, ¾ Fallen Over• Pepper – Full and Firm Fruit• Potatoes – Tops Begin to Die Back• Sweet potatoes – Whenever, When roots are

Right Size• Summer Squash – Sufficient Size, Soft Rind• Winter Squash – Rind Cannot be Penetrated

with Finger Nail• Watermelon - Ground Spot is Yellow,

Tendril is Brown• Tomatoes – Pink to Red Color

Page 39: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Post-Harvest Curing Sweet Potatoes

• Vegetable is a Root• Root is Alive• Root will be Damaged, Cut, Bruised• Wounds Need to Heal

Page 40: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Curing – Sweet Potato

• Warm Temperatures Increase Respiration• High Humidity Prevents Dehydration• Scar Tissue (Callous) Heals Wounds• 85 degrees, with 90-95% humidity• 4-8 days

Page 41: Harvest and Post-Harvest


• Harvest Early in the Day• Cool Quickly• Maintain Temperature According to

Vegetable• Maintain Humidity According to

Vegetable• Quality will not Improve after Harvest

Page 42: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Root Cellar Storage

Page 43: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Vegetable Dehydration for Storage

• High Temperature• Low Humidity

Page 44: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Dehydration for Storage

• Just the Opposite of Normal Storage• We want to remove moisture

Page 45: Harvest and Post-Harvest

Dehydration for Storage

• Temperature 140- 150• Humidity as low as possible•Below 50%

• Lots of Air Movement• Remove Exterior (skin, coating, peel)• Reduce size by cutting, slicing, dicing