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Slide 2 Guatemala is located in Central America and is bordered by Mexico, Honduras, and El Salvador. The country is also sandwiched between the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and the Caribbean Sea to the northeast. Slide 3 Guatemala is an industrializing society with initially agrarian developmental roots. Guatemala was inhabited with early hunting and gathering groups as far back as 10,000 years ago However, the population of Guatemala quickly adapted to food production, namely the cultivation of maize. Slide 4 Guatemala was subjected to Spanish expeditions and rule which decimated local populations from 1518 . .until September 15 th, 1821 when the country declared independence from Spain and membership in the Mexican Empire. Slide 5 Current Population= Crude birth rate = Crude Death Rate= Rate pop. growth = Net Migration rate= 12,293,545 29.88 births/1,000 5.2 deaths/1,000 2.27% -1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population Slide 6 As seen in the graph, Guatemala has been experiencing very rapid population growth in the past 50 years This growth is felt primarily in the youth community Percent of citizens ages 0-14= 41.1% Median age of citizens= 18.9 years Slide 7 The population of Guatemala has jumped from 3 million to over 11 million since 1950. Why? Indigenous distrust of contraceptives Religion Lifestyle based on manual labor and kin High rate of poverty Lack of government aid in family planning Slide 8 Guatemala is a predominantly Catholic country and The Catholic church opposes contraceptives THUS, people are taught to protect oneself from pregnancy and HIV/AIDS by abstinence and fidelity. This methodology could be attributed to the high birth rate found in Guatemala And their rate of infection which is one of the HIGHEST in Central America people living with HIV/AIDS: 78,000 HIV/AIDS - deaths: 5,800 Slide 9 Catholic= 50-60% Protestant ( especially Evangelicals and Pentecostals) = 40% Traditional Mayan beliefs = 1% Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Slide 13 Slide 14 There are 2 major ethnic groups ~ 60% of the population are Ladinos They are Mestizos or of mixed Mayan and European/Spanish descent ~ 40% of the population are of pure Mayan origin ( indigenas ) Slide 15 They make up most of the urban population Their culture is dominant in the urban areas Ladinos speak Spanish and have adopted the European customs They include a wide range of people: from the elite to the middle classes to the poor Slide 16 Historically suffered from discrimination and poverty They are geographically isolated found mainly in the rural highlands Many speak a Mayan language and follow the traditional religious and village customs Still produce the traditional textiles and crafts They are the majority of the agricultural labor force The government has tried to suppress their culture and force them to assimilate Peace agreements in 1996 Slide 17 The social classes are based on wealth, education, and family prestige Race is not as important as culture or lifestyles The distinction between the 2 ethnic groups is more a matter of culture than of biology Natives could be accepted into Ladino society if they are well-educated and could live in a Western lifestyle Slide 18 Society is divided between rich and poor and theres a huge gap between the two The wealthy class is very small Many of the people remain extremely poor, especially the native people Poverty affects both rural and urban areas but those in the rural areas live under harsher conditions Slide 19 Per capita GDP (2007 est.): $5,400. Unemployment rate 3.2% (2005 est.) Top remittance recipient in Central America of population lives in poverty Wealth concentrated among a few Women earn 1/5 of the nations income (lowest in Latin America) Quetzals per US dollar - 7.6833 (2007) The quetzal became the monetary unit of Guatemala in 1925 when it replaced the Guatemalan peso Slide 20 Economy dominated by private sector generates 85% of GDP Agriculture 23% of GDP and 75% of exports Export market: sugar, bananas, coffee Also textiles, winter vegetables, fruit and flowers Export to the United States and Central America U.S. is Guatemalas largest trading partner Slide 21 Slide 22 Labor force by occupation: agriculture: 50% industry: 15% services: 35% (1999 est.) Hindrances of progress: Decades of civil war Lack of diverse manufacturing sector Dependency on exporting agriculture Vast difference between the rural and urban sectors Slide 23 Spanish colonialism Mid-19th century to mid-1980s there were a series of dictatorships, insurgencies (particularly in the 1960s), coups, and stretches of military rule 36 year Civil War Only occasional periods of representative government during this time Slide 24 New Constitution drafted May 1985, amended 1993 Executive President, 4 year term Legislative Unicameral 158 member congress, 4 year term Judicial 13 member Supreme Court of Justice, 5 year term Many subdivisions Suffrage for those over 18 Variety of procedural obstacles have reduced participation by poor, rural, and indigenous people Slide 25 Nation Unity for Hope (UNE) Current party represented by President Alvaro Colom Grand National Alliance (GANA) Consists of Patriot Party, Reform Movement, and National Solidarity Party National Advancement Party (PAN) Center right party Guatemalan Republican Front (FRG) Populist party 14 parties on 2007 presidential election ticket Slide 26 36-Year Civil War (1960-1996) Longest Civil War in Latin American History Ethnic Genocide Ideology conflicts Backed by US CIA Military infiltration into government and public Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG) Mix of four revolutionary groups Assassinated military leaders, including a US Ambassador John Gordon Mein in 1968 Large amount of corruption Guatemalan presidents and government acted out against the guerilla movement with military action Slide 27 1983 de facto President Mejia New constitution 1985 1986 President Cerezo elected under new constitution New laws of habeas corpus (right to trial and jury) and amparo (court-ordered protection) Creation of a legislative human rights committee Office of Human Rights Ombudsman established 1987 More influential movements toward peace: 1993 Constitutional Reforms Purified Congress and Supreme Court UN involvement with human rights agreements and peace accords Global Awareness I, Rigoberta Menchu, an Indian Woman in Guatemala Relative political stability since 1996 Slide 28 Government backed eviction of indigenous people from their land in order to sell it to mining company, 2007 Corruption Continues Slide 29 24% of Guatemalan children ages 7-14 attend public school 7% attend private school 67% Dont attend school at all! In urban Guatemala, 27.1% of 7- 14 year olds start secondary education and 7% of this population receive a college education In rural Guatemala, 0.5% of the population receive a college education 33% of Guatemalan women and 25% of Guatemalan men are illiterate Slide 30 Divided into three levels - Primary (elementary) - Secondary (high School) - University *Education in Guatemala is free and compulsory through sixth grade (Primary school) or between the ages of 7-14* Slide 31 Although Spanish is the official language, not all Guatemalans are fluent in Spanish. 60% speak Spanish, 40% speak indigenous Mayan languages There is a high Indian population, over 20 indigenous Indian languages including Kiche, Kakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, and Quiche. The goal for Guatemalans is to become uni-lingual (for all citizens to be fluent in Spanish). Slide 32 Six years Students must pass a general examination at each grade level in order to pass to the next grade. If they fail, they must repeat the grade. Students receive education in basic areas, including language, science, mathematics, and history. Classes are taught in both Spanish and English, although in more remote areas, indigenous Mayan languages are used exclusively. In cities, students can learn German, French or Italian. Slide 33 Most Guatemalan children do not attend 3 years of general education called Ciclo Prevocaciona l 2 years of Vocational training called Ciclo Diversificado Ciclo Diversificado allows children to specialize in one of several professional areas such as education, agriculture, and business Instead of Ciclo Diversificado, students can opt to receive perito (certification) in industria (industry), agrcola (agriculture), or abogado (lawyer). To combat the illiteracy problem, seniors in high school are required to teach 5 people to read in order to receive their diploma or bachillerato. Slide 34 Five institutions The most prominent and only public university is the Universidad de San Carlos. Must have a bachillerato (diploma), knowledge of Spanish and, for private schools, a satisfactory grade on the Examen de Admision (Entrance Exam) Licenciatura =bachelors degree. 3-7 years. - Technical certificate=3 years. - Degree in arts and sciences = 4 years - Degree in ingienera (engineering)= 6 years - Medicine = 7 years Seminar in Social issues is a requirement. It requires them to write about a significant problem facing Guatemalan society. Maestrado = masters degree. 2 years + thesis Doctorado = doctorate degree Graduating university students must also complete an Internship which requires them to teach 5 Guatemalans how to read. Slide 35 The first child is usually given the name of the his/her father or mother Other children are given the name of ancestors, padrinos, or saints People use their whole name consisting of their first name (sometimes two-fold) and two last names Slide 36 Life revolves around the family Parents= espejos (through them you learn who you are and who you can become) Extended family all live close by Guatemalans rarely spend time alone Fictive kin ( compadre / comadre ) Three generation household is common Emphasize care for the elderly Responsibility of youngest child Traditions are changing with U.S. influe