Goverment assignment,,,,tristan

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  • 1. Governments Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its contribution to the development of democratic principles, including separation of powers,representative government, and the notion of civic duty

2. Roman Republic 3. Roman government setup The straight ladder shows the typical path of advancement (theoretically open to all freebornmale citizens), beginning with election to quaestor, the lowest office, and proceeding to consul,the highest (of course very few men made it that far; it was quite exceptional when a man likeCicero, who did not come from a noble family, was elected consul).Red text designates curule magistrates, who had the right to sit on a specialivory folding stool (sella curulis) as a symbol of their office; they also had the right to wear thepurple-bordered toga (toga praetexta). Offices marked with an asterisk carried imperium, thehighest political authority, which included the right to command an army, to interpret and carry outthe law, and to pass sentences of death. Magistrates whose title began with pro were in chargeof provinces; the Senate normally conferred these after the men had finished their term of officein Rome. The more important provinces, especially those requiring large military forces, wereassigned to ex-consuls, while the less significant provinces were governed by ex-praetors. Mostof these offices remained in place throughout the empire, though their functions changed.Most significantly, imperium was now reserved for the emperor, and advancement in rankproceeded in orderly stages based on conditions laid down by the emperors rather than throughcompetitive electioneering. Thus the cursus honorum changed from a ladder of power (withimportant social status attached) to a ladder of primarily social rank and status. The cursushonorum was, of course, reserved for men. During the entire period of Roman history womenwere prohibited from holding political office, though in the empire their roles as mothers, wives,and daughters of emperors gave a few women very high social status and even a kind of indirectrank. Even elite women who were not members of the imperial family sometimes claimed therank of their fathers or husbands (e.g., as consulares feminae, consular women). 4. Roman government setup 5. MonarchyAs the Roman empire moved to a monarchythe people still had their freedoms butthere would be one person who ruled anddecided what was best for everyone. Until Augustus the religion and state were separate but in a different way than whatwe think of today. When Julius Caesardied he was made a Roman god. 6. Democratic Principles Separation of powers: Within the system ofgovernment, the Roman republic had its own system ofchecks and balances. The Senate nominated people tothe office of censor and they could approve ordisapprove any decisions made.Since the Romans didnot want one man to make all of the laws, they decidedto balance the power of the government between threebranches: the executive branch, the legislative branch,and the judicial branch. The following table will tell youwhat each branch of the Roman government did. 7. Executive Branch The two leaders of the executive branch,the consuls, were elected for just oneyear by the upper class. They supervisedthe Senate and ordered the Roman armyduring wars. Other members of theexecutive branch were the tax collectors,mayors, city police, and other people inpositions of power in cities. 8. Legislative Branch The most powerful part of the legislativebranch was the Senate. The Senate was agroup of about 300 male citizens whoowned land. They could tell the consulshow much money they could spend andon what. These men were appointed bythe consuls. 9. Judicial Branch The judicial branch had six judges whowere elected every two years. They werein charge of deciding punishments thatcriminals would receive. Their job wassimilar to the job that judges have today inthe United States. 10. History of government structure Representative government structure: thegovernment of the Roman Republic was first arepublic and representative form ofgovernment until Julius Caesar changed it to amonarchy form of government with one ruler. 11. End of Monarchy Romes era as a monarchy ended in 509 B.C.with the overthrow of its seventh king, LuciusTarquinius Superbus, whom ancient historiansportrayed as cruel and tyrannical, compared tohis benevolent predecessors. A popular uprisingwas said to have arisen over the rape of avirtuous noblewoman, Lucretia, by the kingsson. Whatever the cause, Rome turned from amonarchy into a republic, a world derived fromres publica, or "property of the people." 12. Late republic During the era of the late Republic, Rome suffered through a reignof terror. Terrors tool was the proscription list, by which largenumbers of important, wealthy people, and often senators, werekilled; their property, confiscated. Sulla, Roman dictator at the time,instigated this carnage: 31 Sulla now busied himself with slaughter, and murders withoutnumber or limit filled the city. Many, too, were killed to gratify privatehatreds, although they had no relations with Sulla, but he gave hisconsent in order to gratify his adherents. At last one of the youngermen, Caius Metellus, made bold to ask Sulla in the senate what endthere was to be of these evils, and how far he would proceed beforethey might expect such doings to cease. "We do not ask thee," hesaid, "to free from punishment those whom thou hast determined toslay, but to free from suspense those whom thou hast determined tosave." 13. Sulla the roman dictator we think of dictators we think of men and women who want enduringpower, a Roman dictator was a legal official duly nominated by the Senate to handle a major problem, with a fixed, limited term. Sulla had been dictator for longer than the normal period, so whathis plans were, as far as hanging onto the office of dictator went,were unknown. It was a surprise when he resigned from the positionof Roman dictator in 79 B.C. Sulla died a year later. The confidencewhich he reposed in his good genius... emboldened him... andthough he had been the author of such great changes andrevolutions of State, to lay down his authority....Plutarch Sullas reign drained the Senate of power. Damage hadbeen done to the republican system of government. Violence anduncertainty allowed a new political alliance to arise. 14. The first Triumvirate Between the death of Sulla and the beginning of the 1st Triumvirate in 59B.C., 2 of the wealthiest and most powerful remaining Romans, GnaeusPompeius Magnus (106-48 B.C.) and Marcus Licinius Crassus (112-53B.C.), grew increasingly hostile to each other. This wasnt simply a privateconcern, since each man was backed by factions and soldiers. To avert civilwar, Julius Caesar, whose reputation was growing because of his militarysuccesses, suggested a 3-way partnership. This unofficial alliance is knownto us as the 1st triumvirate, but at the time was referred to as an amicitiafriendship or factio (whence, our faction). They divvied up the Roman provinces to suit themselves. Crassus, thecapable financier, would receive Syria; Pompey, the renowned general,Spain; Caesar, who would soon show himself to be a skilled politician aswell as a military leader, Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul and Illyricum.Caesar and Pompey helped cement their relationship by Pompeys marriageto Caesars daughter Julia. The First Triumvirate, consisting of Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey,came to power in 59 BC when Caesar was elected consul. 15. Crassus Syria 16. Pompey, the renowned general, gotSpain 17. Juilus Caesar got Rome 18. Julia, wife of Pompey and daughter of Julius Caesar, died in 54, passively breaking the personalalliance between Caesar and Pompey. (Erich Gruen, author ofThe Last Generation of the Roman Republic argues against the significance of the death ofCaesars daughter and many other accepted details of Caesars relations with the Senate.) The triumvirate further degenerated in 53 B.C., when a Parthian army attacked the Roman armyat the Carrhae, and killed Crassus. Meanwhile, Caesars power grew while in Gaul. Laws were altered to suit his needs. Somesenators, notably Cato and Cicero, were alarmed by the weakening legal fabric. Rome had oncecreated the office of tribune to give the plebeians power against the patricians. Among otherpowers, the tribunes person was sacrosanct (they couldnt be harmed physically) and he couldimpose a veto on anyone, including his fellow tribune. Caesar had both tribunes on his side whensome members of the senate accused him of treason. The tribunes imposed their vetoes. Butthen the senate majority ignored the vetoes and roughed up the tribunes. They ordered Caesar,now charged with treason, to return to Rome, but without his army.Julius Caesar returned to Rome with his army. Regardless of the legitimacy of the originaltreason charge the tribunes had vetoed, the moment he stepped across the Rubicon river,Caesar had, in legal fact, committed treason. Caesar could either be convicted of treason, or fightthe Roman forces sent to meet him led by Caesars former co-leader, Pompey. Pompey had the initial advantage, but even so, Julius Caesar won at Pharsalus in 48 B.C. Afterhis defeat, Pompey fled, first to Mytilene, and then to Egypt, where he expected safety, butinstead met his own death. 19. Caesars Rise After Pompeys wife Julia (Caesars daughter) died in 54B.C., and Crassus was killed in battle against Parthia(present-day Iran) the following year, the triumvirate wasbroken. With old-style Roman politics in disorder,Pompey stepped in as sole consul in 53 B.C. Caesarsmilitary glory in Gaul and his increasing wealth hadeclipsed Pompeys, and the latter teamed with hisSenate allies to steadily undermine Caesar. In 49 B.C.,Caesar and one of his legions crossed the Rubicon, ariver on the border between Italy from Cisalpine Gaul.Caesa