Glossary tkt

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Glossaryunits 1-8 By: Gabriela Camana Accuracy /kjrsi/Meaning: The use of correct forms of grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation. Example: In a conversation activity, teachers and learners, or between learners focus on using and producing language correctly, so that is accuracy. How to teach: Accuracy might be taught through easy ways where the student doesnt feel under pressure like dialogues, role plays, and interviews, where that apply grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation

Affix /fks/A meaningful group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to make a new word, which can be a different part of speech from the original word, e.g. interview, interviewer. Example: we add affixes to the base word like in Impossible possible possiblyimpossibly Prefix base word Suffix prefix & suffixHow to teach: Affixes sometimes are difficult because we need to learn which prefix or suffix can be added because according the word it can vary. I should give a list with the frequent words in a base form and then analyze each case and apply exercises and maybe a sentence that contains affixes from one word

Appropriacy / which is suitable in a particular situation.Example: We have appropriacy oflanguagewhen it is used inparticularcontexts with the right grammar structures and grammar.

How to teach: to teach appropriacy we need to give different context to students so they can differenciate the language that they are going to use in each caseAuthentic material / /mt.ri.l/Written or spoken texts which a first language speaker might read or listen to. They may be taken from newspapers, radio etc. The language in the texts is not adapted or made easier for learners or the language learning process.Example: I get authentic material when I cut interesting readings from magazines, newspapers or I record a program from a radio

How to teach: We can teach through authentic material that is taken from different sources that are not focus on teaching English and it will be better because it can be something in which students are interested in.Coherence /kh.rns/When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly, and so are logical and make sense to the listener or Reader. Example: Into a speech we have coherence because it must be clear and have sense to the listener

How to teach: In order to teach coherence we can use jigsaw because we can give students a text divided into three parts and they should organize them and they notice how it should go taking into account the connectors Cohesion /khi.n/ The way spoken or written texts are joined together with logical grammar or lexis, e.g. conjunctions (Firstly, secondly), lexical sets, referring words (it, them, this).Example: In a paragraph we have cohesion because we can see grammatical structures and how the sentences are joined logically.How to teach: we teach cohesion through essays because students will use conjunctions in order to join ideas in a correct way.Cohesive devices / feature in a text which provides cohesion, e.g. use of topic-related vocabulary throughout a text, of sequencing words (then, next, after that etc.), of referencing words (pronouns he, him, etc.), of conjunctions (however, although)Example: Cohesive devices are words and phrases that link ideas in order like: and, but, because, in the first place, however; he/him, it, her, their, and so onHow to teach: teacher should make students aware of vocabulary like synonyms and also the conjunctions in order to use cohesive devices to get an understandable and accuracy writing. Collocation / which are regularly used together. The relation between the words may be grammatical, for example when certain verbs/adjectives collocate with particular prepositions or when a verb like make or do collocates with a noun.Example: In English we have collocations like I do homework not make homework, so do collocates with homeworkHow to teach: Words are learned in groups, not in isolation. So we have to provide a list of collocations like Do exercisesGood atLook atColloquial /klokwil/Language normally used in informal conversation but not in formal speech or writing, e.g. Give Gran a ring, OK?Example: when we are talking with friends we use informal language which is called colloquial language

How to teach: colloquial language should teach in classes through role plays because students can use their language without formalism. Compound /kmpnd/Nouns, verbs, adjectives or prepositions that are made up of two or more words and have one unit of meaning,e.g. assistant office manager, long-legged.Example: compound is a group of words that have one meaning Foot + ball = footballHow to teach: We can give a list of compound words and ask students to divide the words into a T- chartFireworkFirework So students will get the idea of the origin of the words Conjunction /kndkn/A conjunction (or connector) is used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences, e.g. Example: We use conjunctions to connect ideas, words or sentences. conjunctionI like sports but I dont like soccer because its too boring for me. How to teach: I would give a list of conjunctions and their functions like with and join similar ideas, but to show a contrast and give some sentences so, students will choose from the list conjunctions and join the sentences and checkContext /kn.tekst/The situation in which language is used or presented.Example: The context of class is that teacher needs to take into account the level of understanding of students, their needs and which language he/she has to use. How to teach: We can teach context using role plays because we can give different situations to the groups and at the end recognize which contexts were developed during the presentations Contraction /kntrkn/A shorter form of a group of words, which usually occurs in auxiliary verbs, e.g. you have = youve; it is = its. Example: I use contractions at the moment of speaking to sound like a native speaker. I dont like pizza Instead of I do not like pizzaHow to teach: this should be taught to intermediate level because beginner can get confused. Use dialogues with contractions would provide students a right pronunciation and also get accustomed to them obviously we need to clarify that it is for informal writing and speaking.Contrastive stress /kntr.stv//stres/is used to express an unusual or emphatic meaning in a sentence. It involves stressing the important word according to the different meanings.Example: Contrastive stress expresses an important word in a sentence.My mom went to buy a HOUSE. In here we are clarifying that she bought a house no a car, no a bicycle, or something else.How to teach: We can give sentences to the students and they work in pairs the contrastive stress, putting the stress in each word of the sentence, so they can notice the difference when they develop the activity because they have to recognize which word was stressed Controlled practice /kntr.ld//prk.ts/When learners use the target language repeatedly and productively in situations in which they have little or no choice of what language they use. The teacher and learners focus on accurate use of the target language.Example: teacher use controlled practice into the classroom because when he/she is teaching present simple students have to use this in their dialogues, no other structure.How to teach: at the end of each grammar structure, teachers can use dialogues between students and role plays where students can use the structure already learned and use it accurately Convey meaning /knve/ /min/To express or communicate meaning. Example: teachers convey meaning when they present new words and language L1 to a group of people from L2. How to teach: Conveying meaning is used in class to teach new language and we need to avoid translation, instead of that we should use miming to convey meaning. Diphthongs /df./A vowel combination which is pronounced by moving from one vowel to another, e.g. / a / as in my is pronounced by moving from / /to / /.Example: We have diphthongs in many words like in toy or boil where we have a vowel sound in one syllable.

How to teach: We can use mini-charts whit diphthongs focusing on words with the /ow/ sound and the /oy/ sound each day. And through songs we can fill in the chart Discourse /ds.ks/ Spoken or written language in texts or groups of sentences.Example: We use Discourse in a formal communication where we can express our thoughts

How to teach: We develop discourse when we use role plays, debates, dissertation within the classroom in order to have a formal discussion about something.Drill /drl/A technique teachers use for encouraging learners to practice language. It involves guided repetition or practice.Example: When we have an script of a role play we have a drill because we have a repetition of a dialogue

How to teach: Drills are useful for beginner because we give the drill and they repeat and at the same time they practice pronunciation. We should start with easy drills and easy to understand, with this the student will get accustomed and internalize it.Emphasis / special force or attention is given to a word or information because it is importantExample: Teachers at the end of the class emphasize that students have to do the homework for TOMORROW.How to teach: it can be taught through essays or dialogues where the teacher can highlight a word and students have to say it with emphasis when they are talking.Encourage /nkr.d/When a teacher helps learners to succeed by giving them confidence.Example: The teacher always encourages us to talk in front of the class with out nervous because in that way we are going to learn and be self - confident How to teach: we can encourage o