glass in interior architecture

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glass in interior architecture. naturally colored glass is composed of 72% silica, 15% soda, 10% lime, and 3% other impurities. silica is basically sand. Glass is not naturally colorless. Beach sand invariably contains black particles of iron oxides scattered through it. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of glass in interior architecture

  • glass in interior architecture

  • naturally colored glass is composed of 72% silica, 15% soda, 10% lime, and 3% other impurities. silica is basically sand.

  • Glass is not naturally colorless. Beach sand invariably contains black particles of iron oxides scattered through it.

    When fired in a usual, oxygen-rich environment (i.e., with the furnace in an oxidizing state), these impurities give the glass a natural aquablue to light green tinge.

  • until the 1750s glass was only made in small sizes due to the difficulty of manufacturing larger pieces. this spun glass disc would be cut into usable panes of relatively clear glass.

  • the history of glass making in englandWindow Glass was not produced in significant quantities in this country until :-

    1226 BROAD SHEET was first made in Sussex, but of poor quality, and fairly opaque. Manufacture slowly decreased and ceased by the early 16th Century.1330 French glassmakers produced CROWN GLASS for the first time at Rouen. Some French Crown and Broad Sheet was imported into the UK.1620 BLOWN PLATE was produced in London by grinding and polishing Broad Sheet, and was used for mirrors and Coach Plates.1678 CROWN GLASS was first produced in London. Because of its finer quality, this process predominated until the mid nineteenth century.1688 The French produced POLISHED PLATE in larger sizes by casting and hand polishing.1773 English POLISHED PLATE by the French process was produced at Ravenshead. By 1800 a steam engine was used to carry out the grinding and polishing of the cast glass.

  • 1834 Robert Lucas Chance introduced IMPROVED CYLINDER SHEET, using a German process to produce finer quality and larger panes. This glass was used to glaze The Crystal Palace. The process was used extensively until early in the 20th Century to make window glass. From this period onwards machines were developed to automate the production of obscured Glass and later, window glass.1847 James Hartley introduced a ROLLED PLATE glass with obscured ribbed finish, which is often found glazed in the roofs of railway termini.1888 Chance Bros introduced MACHINE ROLLED patterned glass.1898 Pilkingtons introduced Hexagonal Rolled WIRED CAST.1903 MACHINE DRAWN CYLINDER Glass invented in the USA, was manufactured in the UK by Pilkingtons from 1910 to 1933.1913 Belgium produced the first machine FLAT DRAWN SHEET glass. It was first drawn in the UK in 1919 in Kent .1923 First UK production of continuous POLISHED PLATE glass, using single grinding system.1938 Pilkingtons developed the twin ground POLISHED PLATE system.1959 FLOAT GLASS was launched on the UK Market, invented by Sir Alistair Pilkington.tair Pilkington.

  • Tim Macfarlane: Achieving the Impossible with laminated glass

  • Tim Macfarlane is an architectural engineer whose London-based practice, Dewhurst, Macfarlane and Partners, works with architects and clients worldwide.

    Tim's pioneering work with beams, columns and cantilever canopies of laminated glass has been honored four times (1995, twice in 1996 and 1997) in the DuPont Benedictus Awards for innovation in architectural laminated glass.

  • glass subway canopy, Tokyo, Japan

  • laminated glass cantilevered beams

  • tim macfarlanes design sketches

  • glass stairways

  • laminated glass applications

  • details within glass stair construction

  • float glass

    Most of the worlds flat glass is now made by the float process developed by Pilkington in the early 1960s.

    Molten glass, at approximately 1000C, is poured continuously from a furnace onto a shallow bath of molten tin. It floats on the tin, spreads out and forms a level surface.

    Thickness is controlled by the speed at which the solidifying glass ribbon is drawn off from the bath.

    After annealing (controlled cooling) the glass emerges as a 'fire' polished product with virtually parallel surfaces.

  • how glass is madehttp://www.glasswebsite.com/video/default.asp

  • the float glass process

  • corning museum of glass, corning, n.y.sculpture by dale chihuly

  • galleria, toronto, canadadesigned by santiago calatrava

  • connecting glass pieces to other glass pieces, or connectingglass pieces to other building parts requires careful, and oftensophisticated, detailing.

  • here the steel column and beam structure of the building is separated from the glass enclosing planes by building an additional light structure just for the glazing.

  • a steel connector & a drawing of the same

  • the glass is virtually invisible, allowing the unusual, and dynamic, steel structure to be seen as a whole wall.

  • glass box house designed by ken yokogawa, located in kobe, japanthe interior seems to be pulled to the outdoors because of the large expanses of clear glass

  • floor plan of glass box house

  • here the clear glass exterior walls of the house disappear. this sort of application only makes sense for a site that offers substantial privacy.

  • wood framing for the fixed glass panels, operable sash, and doors.

  • All-glass buildings blur the boundaries between outside and inside.

    Transparency satisfies our curiosity about the inner workings of things and assures us of the contents of a room.

  • a spider metal connector piece

  • obscure glass is the term used for any glass that distorts the view.

  • bullet resistant glass

  • tempered glassTreated glass that is strengthened by reheating it to just below the melting point and then suddenly cooling it.

    When shattered, it breaks into small pieces.

    Approximately five times stronger than standard annealed glass; is required as safety glazing in patio doors, entrance doors, side lights, and other hazardous locations.

    It cannot be recut after tempering.

  • tempered glass: shatters into harmless chunks rather than into dangerousknife shapes as non-tempered glass does.

  • laminated glassLaminated Glass is manufactured by permanently bonding two or more lites of glass with layers of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer, under heat and pressure, to create a single construction.

    Laminated glass is used where safety is a priority, such as in automobile windshields, and overhead skylights.