Gianmarco Veruggio. Roboethics on Skolkovo Robotics

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Transcript of Gianmarco Veruggio. Roboethics on Skolkovo Robotics

  • 1.Roboethics: Philosophical, Social and Ethical Implications of Robotics Gianmarco Veruggio Director of Research, Italian National Research Council Istituto di Elettronica e di Ingegneria dell'Informazione e delle Telecomunicazioni Honorary President of Scuola di Robotica

2. From Industrial Robotics to Service Robotics About 16,100 service robots for professional use were sold in 2012, 2% more than in 2011, reports IFR Statistical Department in the new study "World Robotics 2013 - Service Robots.2 3. Service Robotics Overview Field robotics Professional cleaning Inspection and maintenance systems Construction and demolition Logistic systems Medical robotics Defense, rescue & security applications Underwater systems Mobile Platforms in general use Robot arms in general use Public relation robots Humanoids 3 4. ELSA - Ethical, Legal,Societal Aspects Robocop 2014The end of robots segregation era means new technical and Ethical, Legal and Societal (ELS) issues arising from robotic invasion in human society. 4 5. General Technical Issues Traditional technical issues common to all the machines:5 6. Advanced Robotics Technical Issues New technical issues arising from: HW/SW Complexity Autonomy Uncertainty, deriving from the unstructured and chaotic real environment. Unpredictability of learning machines; Traceability of evaluation/actions procedures. Identification of robots. Cyber security6 7. Advanced Robotics ELS issues Ethical, Legal and Societal issues: Replacement of human beings (economic problems; human unemployment; social instability); Digital divide; Generational divide; Lack of legislation; Privacy; Psychological problems (deviations in human emotions, problems of attachment, disorganization in children, fears, panic, confusion between real and artificial, feeling of subordination towards robots) 7 8. Robotics: a new science? Robotics is born from Mechanics Electrical Engineering Electronics Automation Cybernetics Computer Science Artificial Intelligence Information Technologyand it draws some elements from: Physics/Math Logic/Linguistics Neuroscience/Psychology Biology/Physiology Anthropology/Philosophy Art/Industrial DesignRobotics Gestalt The whole is greater than the sum of the parts! 8 9. Robots in Human History Robots come from an ancient mith and vision: the word "automation" is the latinization of the Greek , automaton, "acting of ones own will". This word was first used by Homer (8th century BC) to describe automatic door opening, or automatic movement of wheeled tripods. He narrated about metallic statues made animate by the divine smith Hephaistos and manufactured by the great Athenian craftsman Daedalus. 9 10. The History of Automatons In the reality Heron of Alexandria (c. 10 70 AD) was an ancient Greek mathematician and engineer who wrote the book Automata, a description of machines which enable wonders in temples by mechanical or pneumatical means (e.g. automatic opening or closing of temple doors, statues that pour wine, etc.). The story of automatons continues until 19th Century (the period 1860 to 1910 is known as "The Golden Age of Automata) The Writer by Pierre Jaquet-DrozTea Serving Doll by TAMAYA Shobei IX10 11. The birth of Robots in Literature The first automaton called "robots", are the mechanical slaves in the play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) by Karel apek. When the play premiered in 1921, it introduced the word into the world's vocabulary. And few years later, in 1928, Fritz Lang created the character of Maria/Robotrix in his movie Metropolis.11 12. Human tendency to Anthropomorphization Giving human characteristics to animals, inanimate objects or natural phenomena is a human trait called to anthropomorphize.The term (anthropomorphism) was coined by the Greek philosopher Xenophanes (c. 570 c. 475 BC) when describing the similarity between religious believers and their gods (that is, Greek gods were depicted having light skin and blue eyes while African gods had dark skin and brown eyes). Anthropomorphism carries many important implications. For example, thinking of a nonhuman entity in human ways renders it worthy of moral care and consideration. In addition, anthropomorphized entities become responsible for their own actions that is, they become deserving of punishment and reward. 12 13. The Pinocchio Syndrome I coined the definition Pinocchio Syndrome to describe this trait of human psychology applied to automata/robots, which are considered sub-human beings who will evolve into humans.The Adventures of Pinocchio Carlo Collodi, 1883A.I. Artificial Intelligence Steven Spielberg, 200113 14. Pay Attention to the Flaws in Reasoning! DOGS have four legs, The THING that I see here has four legs, therefore The THING that I see here is a DOG!?14 15. From Science Fiction Isaac Asimov wrote the famous Three Laws of Robotics (1942):1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. 2. A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. 3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. 15 16. to Reality! The main applications field of robotics today is Defence: about 6,600 service robots in defence applications account for 40% of the total number of service robots for professional use sold in 2011. The value of defence robots can only roughly be estimated. It was about US$ 748 million, 3% higher than in 2010. Thereof, about 28,000 robots for defence applications will be sold in the period 2013-2016. They are followed by milking robots with about 24,500 units. These two service robot groups make up 55% of the total forecast of service robots. (IFR 2013) 16 17. Which way for Robotics?Would you tell me please, which way I ought to go from here? asked Alice. That depends a good deal on where you want to get to said the Cat.17 18. Roboethics DefinitionRoboethics is an applied ethics whose objective is to develop scientific/cultural/technical tools that can be shared by different social groups and beliefs. These tools aim to promote and encourage the development of Robotics for the advancement of human society and individuals, and to help preventing its misuse against humankind. (Veruggio, 2002) 18 19. The Birth of Roboethics The School of Robotics organized the First International Symposium on Roboethics, 30-31 January 2004, Villa Nobel, Sanremo, Italy Philosophers, jurists, sociologists, anthropologist and moralists, together with robotic scientists, were called to contribute to lay the foundations of the Roboethics: the Ethics in the design, development and employment of the Intelligent Machines.19 20. DisambiguationROBOETHICSROBOT ETHICSROBOTS ETHICS20 21. What is Roboethics The first level is represented by the adopted ethical theories, developed principally by the branch of philosophy called ethics or morality, which studies human conduct, moral assessments and the concepts of good and evil, right and wrong, justice and injustice. This is the proper concept of Roboethics, meaning applied ethics that attempts to provide answers to new questions that are generated by the progress of robotics. This level updates the various views on concepts such as dignity and integrity of the person and the fundamental rights of the individual, as well as the social, psychological and legal aspects involved.21 22. What is Robot Ethics The second level, currently referred to as Robot Ethics, or Machine Ethics, regards the code of conduct that designers implement in the Artificial Intelligence of robots. This means a sort of Artificial Ethics able to guarantee that autonomous robots will exhibit ethically acceptable behavior. It is clear that the guidelines to define what is ethically acceptable and to enforce them are the product of the abovementioned field of Roboethics. Robots are, in fact, machines, meaning tools that are unaware of the choices made by their human creators, which, therefore, bear the moral responsibility for the actions, good or bad, of robots.22 23. What is Robots Ethics Finally, there is a third level, which we could perhaps define as Robots Ethics, because it is the ethic born from the subjective morality of a hypothetical robot that is equipped with a conscience and freedom to choose its own actions on the basis of a full comprehension of their implications and consequences. It is only in this case that robots may be deemed as moral agents, and that one may refer to as involving the responsibilities or rights of robots.23 24. Roboethics Taxonomy Humanoids Artificial Mind, Artificial Body Advanced production systems Industrial robotics Adaptive robot servants and intelligent homes Indoor Service Robots, Ubiquitous Robotics Network Robotics Internet Robotics, Robot ecology Outdoor Robotics Land, Sea, Air, Space Health Care and Life Quality Surgical Robotics, Bio-Robotics, Assistive Technology Military Robotics Intelligent Weapons, Robot Soldiers, Superhumans Edutainment Educational Robots, Robot Toys, Entertainment, Robotic Art 24 25. Focus on Military Robotics In this field are comprised all the devices resulting from the development of the traditional systems by robotics technology: Integrated Defense Systems: A.I. system for intelligence and surveillance controlling weapons and aircraft capabilities. Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) Autonomous Tanks: armored vehicles carrying weapons and/or tactical payloads. Intelligent Bombs and Missiles. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles): also referred to as autonomous flying veheicles (AFVs) or Drones, unmanned spy planes and remotely piloted bombers. ASV (Autonomous Surface Vessels), patrol boats. AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles): intelligent torpedoes and autonomous submarines. 25 26. Robot Soldiers Robot Soldiers: Eventually humanoids may be employed to substitute humans in performing sensitive tasks