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  • 7/31/2019 Get a Better Rice Harvest ENG


    Get a Better Rice HarvestSimple Ways to Prevent Diseases

    Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO (ACCU)

  • 7/31/2019 Get a Better Rice Harvest ENG


    Good Morning,


    Hi, Roy. Hi, Anita.You look happy. Did

    you get a good harvestthis season?

    Yeah, but you lookgloomy. How wasyours?

    Terrible. Much smaller

    than last season. I did it thesame way as before though . . .I wonder what went wrong.


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    Mr. Karim, maybethere's some reasonfor it.

    Anita might be right.Can you think of any reason?

    Not really.I didn't seemany insectsin the field.

    Wait a minute! I saw someyellow leaves. I thoughtthat was strange.

    Yellow leaves? Oh, that couldbe rice disease. We had suchunusual weather this season.

    Rice disease? Do you know

    anything about it?

    Anita does.Let's talk about it

    over a cup of tea.

    We're home.

    Oh, hello,Mr. Karim.

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    Anita's working atagricultural centre. Please have some tea.

    To get a good harvest,it's important to preventthe rice getting diseases.

    Roy's such alucky man tomarry you.Tell me how

    to preventrice diseases.

    Firstly, let'scompare healthy ricepaddy and unhealthyrice paddy.

    Here is apicture of healthyrice in a healthyrice paddy.

    leavesstand upfirmly, notdropping. spacing is



    roots are thick,long and strong.

    soil is soft, nutritiousand with lots of air.

    Healthy Rice Paddy

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    Did your paddylook like this?

    No, my rice wasyellow with spotsand drooping.

    Wasn't thesoil hard?

    spots on leaves

    leaves are yellow,brown and white andsome are drooping

    roots cannot growdeep in the soil

    soil is hard withno space for air

    Gee, it looks justlike my paddy. Myrice was sick.

    "Health is wealth!" appliesnot only to us humansbut to rice as well.

    Unhealthy Rice PaddyThis rice paddy isno good. It easilygets disease. Thecrop from such apaddy is small.

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    Healthy Soil for Strong Rice

    The best way to prevent disease isto grow strong rice which can resist.

    But how can we growsuch strong rice?

    To grow strong rice, the soil must be healthy.Healthy soil helps the roots to grow big and deep.

    But if diseased stubble and straw are left in the soil,they can cause rice diseases.

    Healthy Soilsoft soil - easy to ploughno weed seedsearthworms are active

    Unhealthy Soilhard soil - lack of air or waterweed seedscrop residues with disease

    stubble and straw

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    How to Prepare Healthy Soil Diseased stubble andstraw are burned.

    Right after the harvest,turn over the field andapply compost.

    Compost can enrichyour paddy.

    Healthy soil helps rice growwell and strong. Here's howto prepare healthy soil.

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    Good Seeds & Bad Seeds

    Firstly, healthy soil . . . . thenthe seeds, I suppose!

    Right! If you plant bad seeds, the ricewon't grow well - or worse, it can spreaddisease to other plants.

    Good Seed Bad Seed

    Seedlings from Good Seed Seedlings from Bad Seed

    Planting good seeds brings better harvest.And there are simple ways to select good seeds like these. Let's see what aregood seeds!

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    Choose Good Variety Strong against Disease

    There are many varieties of rice and some are resistant against specific

    diseases. So, if the rice crop gets a disease easily, it is better to changethe variety next season.

    Plants from two different varieties grown under the same condition

    plants from resistant variety plants from another variety

    Find out whichkind of seed is thebest for your field.

    Always use good seeds as planting material.If you do not use good seed,even a resistant or strong variety cannot do well.

    You may ask anagricultural extensionworker what varietiesresistant to the disease

    are available.

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  • 7/31/2019 Get a Better Rice Harvest ENG


    (2) Separating seeds by wind power

    (3) Separating in mud water

    Empty or half-filledseeds are blown away.

    Healthy seeds falldown closer.

    Remove lightseeds that float.

    Mix somemud wellwith water.

    Seeds which sink tothe bottom aregood seeds.


    Sprinkle seeds from ahigher place in the breeze.

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    Using Fertilizer Effectively

    Three best times for fertilizer

    *Be careful not to apply fertilizer before rain.

    (1) Mix compost or organic fertilizer

    well with soil to reduce risk of disease.

    (2) Apply fertilizerduring tillering.

    (3) Apply fertilizerbefore flowering.

    Right amount of fertilizer

    lack of fertilizer enough fertilizer too muchfertilizer

    Lack of fertilizer andtoo much fertilizer cancause damage to yourplants. If you applytoo much nitrogen, itcan cause spots onleaves and plants maybecome lodging, too.

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    Remove Weeds and Sick Rice Plants

    Weeds may carry disease or take away thenutrients from the soil that the rice needsto grow well. Some rice diseases arecontagious and they can spread very fast inthe field. So remove weeds, irregular stalksor sick rice plants immediately.

    Weeding during thefirst few weeksafter plantingincreases healthygrowth of rice.Later, ducks canhelp reduce weeds.

    Paddy with weeds and sick plants

    Paddy without weeds and sick plants

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    Strong rice comes from healthysoil, good seeds, right fertilizerand weeding-Is that right?

    That's the way to growstrong, healthy rice.

    But what if the rice getsa disease? Is there anyway to save it?

    Yeah, Key isfind it at a veryearly stage.

    How can I know which ofmy rice plants got disease?

    Rice sends out various signs

    that it is sick. We must noticethose signs.

    For example, you can look at

    the colours, size, spots, shapes....

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    We must see if there is anyplant that looks different fromthe others.

    Is there any colour changein the leaves, are theyyellowish, brownish orwhitish?


    Size Spots


    Are same plants shorteror taller than others?

    Are there spotson the leaves?

    Is there strangestructure ofgrains?

    My towel, the

    colour has faded,it's got holes andthe shape is unusual!

    Ha, ha! Just

    like sick rice!

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    There are many kinds of ricediseases. And effectivepreventions differs from onedisease to another.

    That means we have toidentify which diseaseour rice has got.

    Here's a book on rice diseases.The agricultural centre hasmany useful books on

    agriculture for you.

    Wow,I should have readthe book earlier.

    Let's go and talk with theagricultural extension workerssome time soon. They can giveus advice.

    Thanks a lot,

    Anita. That wasreally useful!

    My pleasure.

    Please comeagain.

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    Examples of Rice Diseases

    (1) Bacterial Blight

    (2) Sheath Blight

    This is a serious rice diseaseduring the rainy season.Tops or edges of the leaveschange color from green to whiteand edges become wavy.

    Damage-Leaf and plant dying

    -Empty grains

    Preventive Action-Burning of diseased stubble-Good land preparation-Planting resistant variety-Selecting good seed

    This is often seen in crowded ricefields where nitrogen fertilizer isapplied excessively.


    -Spots on leaf blade and sheath-Dying leaves-Empty grains

    Preventive Action-Burning of diseased stubble-Good land preparation-Chemical control with rightchemical at proper dose and

    proper time

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    (3) Blast

    This is a leaf spot disease often

    caused by large amount ofnitrogen, cloudy skies, and rain.Almond-shaped (wide in the centerand pointed towards the ends) anddark brown spots can be found onleaf and leaf sheath, neck ofpanicles.

    Damage-In severe cases, rice plants infield may all die-Panicle breaks at the neck.

    Preventive Action-Planting resistant variety-Good fertilizer management-Chemicals -right chemical atproper dose and proper time.

    (4) Brown Spot

    This is another leaf spot diseasefrequently occurring due to poorsoil condition. Spots are brownand circular. Size of spots variesfrom that of pin-head to rice grain.

    Damage-Leaf dying

    Preventive Action-Good land preparation-Planting resistant variety-Good seed-Fertilizer at proper dose and

    proper time.

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    (5) Tungro

    Rice plants change colour fromgreen to yellow to orange.Green leaf hoppers spread thisdisease.

    (6) Grain Discoloration

    Grain itself can get disease. Whenthis happens, colour of panicles arebrown to dark brown. Affectedgrains easily break.

    Damage-Grains empty or half empty

    Preventive Action-Good seed-Chemical seed treatment withappropriate chemical

    Damage-Whole plant affected-No panicle produced

    Management-Planting resistant varieties.-Removal of tungro virus infestedplants from the field

    You can see

    the differences

    Top part is grain


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    Three Reminders for a Good Harvest

    Farmers' Careand Attention

    Good LandPreparation

    Selection ofGood Seeds

    Guide for UtilizationTarget audience: neo-literates at self-learning level engaged in rice cultivation

    Objectives:To enable learners to(1) understand what makes a healthy rice paddy,(2) grow healthy rice that is resistant against diseases,(3) know simple ways to identify diseases.And to motivate learners' interest in more reading materials on agriculture and other subjects.

    Application:1. Before distributing this booklet, learners share their experiences concerning problems of small harvest

    and rice diseases etc. through discussion.2. After distributing the booklet, instructor should ask learners to read it and discuss with them the

    possibility of diseases control and whether they think the simple measures introduced in the bookletare useful and applicable.

    3. Instructor may give some further explanation on pages 17-19 on the information on major ricediseases for better comprehension.

    4. Instructor can show,if possible, reading materials on different topics concerning agriculture to the

    learners for further reading.

    Illustrated by Shinichi Suzuki (Japan)

    Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO (ACCU) 19956 Fukuromachi Shinjuku ku Tokyo 162 8484 JapanC