GEOMETRIK JALAN - Coordination Horizontal and Vertical Alignment

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Transcript of GEOMETRIK JALAN - Coordination Horizontal and Vertical Alignment

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    Vertical Horizontal Alignment

    http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/flex/ch05.htm(Chapter 5 from FHWAs Flexibility in Highway Design)

    http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/flex/ch05.htmhttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/flex/ch05.htmhttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/flex/ch05.htm
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    2

    Coordination of Horizontal and Vertical

    Alignment

    Source: FHWA, Chapter 5hra 2013 coordination

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    Coordination of horizontal and

    vertical alignment should begin

    with preliminary design

    Easier to make adjustments atthis stage

    Designer should study long,

    continuous stretches of

    highway in both plan andprofile and visualize the whole

    in three dimensions

    (FHWA, Chapter 5)

    Coordination of Horizontal and Vertical

    Alignment

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Coordination of Vertical and Horizontal Alignment

    4

    Lengkung dan kemiringan harusmemenuhi keseimbangan

    Avoid

    Excessive curvature to achieve flat grades

    Excessive grades to achieve flat curvature

    Lengkung Vertical harus dikoordinasikandengan horizontal

    Lengkung horizontal tajam tidakdisarankan pada atau dekat puncak dari

    lengkung cembung vertical Disarankan pengemudi tidak menerima

    perubahan lengkung horizontalkhususnya malam hari.

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Coordination of Vertical and Horizontal Alignment5

    Lengkung tajam horizontal disarankan tidak digunakan didaerah dekatlengkung cekung kemiringan tajam mendekati titik penggunaanlengkung cekung

    Horizontal curves appear distorted

    Vehicle speeds (esp. trucks) are highest at the bottom of a sag vertical

    curve

    Can result in erratic motion

    Pada jalan dua lajur dan menyiap diizinkan, perlu dipertimbangkanruang lajur boleh menyiap.

    Difficult to accommodate with certain arrangements of horizontal andvertical curvature

    Need long tangent sections to assure sufficient passing sight distance

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Coordination of Vertical and Horizontal Alignment

    6

    Pada areal persimpangan yang membutuhkan jarak pandang cukup,baik lengkung horizontal and vertical harus sedatar mungkin

    Di areal pemukiman, alinemen diupayakan seminim mungkingangguannya terhadap lingkungan

    Depressed highways are less visible Depressed highways produce less noise

    Horizontal alignments can increase the buffer zone between roadway and cluster ofhomes

    Bila dimungkinkan alinemen disarankan menghasilkan pemandangan

    alam sebaik mungkin, baik lingkungan alamiah maupun buatan Highway should lead into not away from outstanding views Fall towards features of interest at low elevation Rise towards features best seen from below or in silhouette against the sky

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Coordination of Horizontal and Vertical Alignment

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    Harus konsisten dengan topography

    Persiapkan pengembangan properti di sepanjang rute jalan

    Pertimbangkan nilai nilai komunitas

    Sesuaikan dengan kontur asli dan kondisi lahan

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Tidak berpengaruh terhadapaesthetic, pemandangan,historis, dan sumberdayabudaya di sepanjang rute jalan

    Menghasilkan pemandanganalam menarik

    Rivers

    Rock formations

    Parks

    Historic sites Outstanding buildings

    Good Coordination of Horizontal and Vertical Alignment

    Source: FHWA, Chapter 5hra 2013 coordination

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    PLAN

    PROFILE

    Profile with tangent alignment

    Avoid designing little local dips in an otherwise long, uniform grade. These

    dips usually result from a desire to balance cut and fill and to reduce overhaul

    Preferred

    Tangent alignment

    hra 2013 coordination

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    PLAN

    PROFILE

    Profile with curve alignment

    Short humps in the grade should be avoided

    Preferred

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Short tangent on a crest between two horizontal curves

    PLAN

    PROFILE

    This combination is deficient for two reasons.

    The tangent between the curves is too short, and the reverse occurs on a crest

    hra 2013 coordination

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    PLAN

    PROFILE

    Short tangent on a crest between two horizontal curves

    This combination is deficient for two reasons. The tangent between the curves is

    to short, and the reverse occurs on a crest

    hra 2013 coordination

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    PROFILE

    PLAN

    Bumps

    Preferred

    A distant side view of a long grade on tangent will reveal every bumps

    on it

    Distant view showing bumps in profile gradeline

    hra 2013 coordination

    Line sight across open bottom lands

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    Maybe we want this if we are trying to slow people down???

    PROFILE

    PLAN

    Sharp angle appearence

    This combination presents a poor appearance the horizontal curve looks

    like a sharp angle

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Crest

    PLAN

    Coinciding curves in horizontal and vertical dimensions

    When horizontal and vertical curves coincide, a very satisfactory

    appearance results

    PROFILE

    hra 2013 coordination

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    PLAN

    Opposing curves in horizontal and vertical dimensions

    When horizontal and vertical curve oppose, a very satisfactoryappearance results

    PROFILE

    SAG

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Horizontal alignment with small central angles

    Very long fleet curves, even where not required by a design speed and regardless of profile,

    also have a pleasing appearance when the central angle is very small

    Minimum curve for the design

    speed

    Desirable curve for appearance

    PLAN

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Coinciding vertices in horizontal and vertical dimensions

    The classic case of coordination between horizontal and vertical alignment in which

    the vertices of horizontal and vertical curves coincide, creating a rich effect of three -

    dimensional S curves composed of convex and concave

    PROFILE

    PLAN

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Coinciding vertices with single phase skip

    A legitimate case of coordination: one phase is skipped in the horizontal plane,

    but vertices still coincide. The long tangent in plan is softened by vertical

    curvature

    Plan

    Profile

    hra 2013 coordination

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    Koordinasi lemah alinemen horizontal dan vertikal

    Profile

    PLAN

    hra 2013 coordination

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    A

    B

    PLAN

    Horizontal alignment should be balanced

    The upper line is an example of poor design because the alignment consists of a long tangent

    with short curves, whereas the balance between the curves and tangents in the lower

    alignment is the preferred design

    hra 2013 coordination

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    PROFILE

    PLAN

    Line of sight

    Perspective

    A disjointed effect occurs when the beginning of a horizontal curve is

    hidden from the driver by an intervening crest while the continuation

    of the curve is visible in the distance beyond the intervening crest

    Disjointed effect

    hra 2013 coordination

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    PROFILE

    PLAN

    Horizontal alignment view 2 breaks maximum

    Vertical alignment view 3 breaks maximum

    Good coordination of horizontal and vertical alignment

    View

    View

    hra 2013 coordination

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