Game mechanics-puzzles (NielsQuinten)

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  • 1.Game Mechanics,Balance & Puzzles

2. Waarom? To improve our games! 3. Game Mechanics Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents, designedfor interaction with the game state. (sicart) http://gamestudies.org/0802/articles/sicart 4. Game Mechanics Methods =>werkwoorden E.g. Schieten, springen, draaien, etc. Agents =>spelers en Non-playercharacters (NPCs) Interaction with the game state=> Agents veranderenietsaande game state. 5. Game Mechanics Zoek de game mechanics..http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ziT7FDL4tXo Is dit een game mechanic?http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=PvewR66iCUE#t=164s 6. Game mechanics& regels Game mechanics are concerned with the actual interactionwith the game state, while rules provide the possibility spacewhere that interaction is possible [] Sicart Spelregelsvertellen hoe game mechanicsgebruiktkunnenworden. E.g.eenschakerkaneenschaakstukverplaatsen (mechanic), maarmag geen twee schaakstukken in hetzelfdevakplaatsen (regel). 7. Wat komt er kijken bij gamemechanics? Space Objects, attributes, andstates Skill Chance 8. Space In welke ruimte kunnen de game mechanics gebruikt worden? Discrete vs. continuousspace OXO vs. Pooltafel http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=FoCKsP2wVvg#t=255s Nestedspace(een ruimte in een ruimte) http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=74eLOYIXshs#t=122s Zero-space 9. Objects, attributes, andstates Objecten =>Characters, props, tokens, scoreboards, anythingthat can be seen or manipulated in your game falls into thiscategory. E.g. Een auto Elk object heeftattributen of categorien van waarde(gelijkaardigaanvariablen in OOP) E.g. Het attribuut snelheidof kleur van een auto Tijdens het spelenheeft elk object eenstaatafhankelijk van deattributen. E.g. de snelheid is 150km/h http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uN8AJ8Plgvw 10. Skill Fysieke skills =>skills involving strength, dexterity,coordination, andphysicalendurance. E.g. Dance, dancerevolution Mentale skills =>skills of memory, observation, and puzzlesolving. E.g. Sudoku Sociale skills =>reading an opponent (guessing what he isthinking), fooling an opponent, and coordinating withteammates. E.g. Poker 11. Chance Chance is an essential part of a fun game because chancemeans uncertainty, anduncertaintymeans surprises. Chance kun je bv. genereren met dobbelstenen of eenrandom() functie. Voor de genteresseerden: Ten Rules of Probability Every GameDesigner Should Know, p155, Book of Lenses 12. Chance Chance moet je balanceren: 13. Chance Mensen doen vaak geen koelbloedige kansberekeningen -> Risk aversion, lossaversion, .. E.g. Risk aversion: A person is given the choice between twoscenarios, one with a guaranteed payoff and one without. In theguaranteed scenario, the person receives $50. In the uncertainscenario, a coin is flipped to decide whether the person receives$100 or nothing. (Wikipedia) 14. Balance Think of it like creating a new recipe it is one thing todetermine the ingredient you need, but another to decidehow much of each to use, and how they should be combined. 15. 1. Fairness Symmetrical Games to give equal resources and powers to all players. Asymmetrical Games To simulate a real-world situation (war) To give players another way to explore the gamespace. (mortalcombat) Personalization (world of warcraft) To level the playing field 16. 2. Challenge vs. Success Flow =>If play is too challenging, the player becomesfrustrated. But if the player succeeds too easily, they canbecome bored. 17. 2. Challenge vs. Success Heeft Kabul Kaboom een goede challenge vs. Success balans?http://ludology.typepad.com/games/kabulkaboom.html 18. 2. Challenge vs. Success Increase difficulty with each success. Let players get through easy parts fast. Create layers of challenge. (de speler punten geven, enonder een bepaald percentage moeten ze het level opnieuwdoen) Let players choose the difficulty level. (easy, medium, hard) Playtest with a variety of players. As a designer, it makes sense to ask yourself Whatpercentage of players do I want to be able to complete thisgame? and then design for that. 19. 3. MeaningfulChoices Not just any choices, but choices that will have a real impacton what happens next, and how the game turns out. Keuzes die meteen effect hebben, maar ook in het verderverloop van de game effect hebben. E.g. Tetris, een blokjeverkeerd zetten geeft meteen weer dat die rij(en) een openinghebben, en daar moet je verder in het spel rekening mee gaanhouden. Once a dominant strategy is discovered, the game is no longerfun => e.g. eenaangepastversie van rock, paper, siccor 20. 3. Meaningfulchoice 21. 4. Skill vs. Chance Een goed game heeft een goede balans tussen skill& chance(afhankelijk van het type spel). Veel skill zonder chance kan voorspelbaar worden Veel chance zonder skillkan de speler een gevoel geven datzijn inbreng er niet toe doet =>saai E.g. poker => delen van handen is chance, hoe je ze speelt skill 22. 5. Head vs. Hands How much of the game should involve doing a challengingphysical activity (be it steering, throwing, or pushing buttonsdexterously) and how much of it should involve thinking? 23. 6. Competition vs. Cooperation Determining who is most skilled at something is a basichuman urge. Games of competition can satisfy that urge. Cooperation/Collaborating and succeeding as a team is aspecial pleasure that can create lasting social bonds Wat is het verschiltussen cooperation en collaboration? Geenredenomzebeidenietsamentezetten. E.g. FPSmultiplayers, samenwerken in n team tegeneenander team 24. 7. Short vs. Long If the game is too short, players may not get a chance todevelop and execute meaningful strategies. But if the gamegoes on too long, players may grow bored, or they may avoidthe game because playing it requires too much of a timecommitment. E.g. Minotaur ->als het speltelangduurt,Armageddon! 25. 8. Rewards Praise. Points. Prolonged Play. A Gateway (new parts to play).Spectacle. Expression Powers. Resources. Gradually increase the value of the rewards as the playerprogresses in the game. A good way to keep people from getting acclimated torewards is to make them variable instead of fixed. E.g. geef niet altijd 15 punten bij het verslaan van een vijand,maar 1/3de kans voor 20 punten en 2/3de kans op 10 punten 26. 9. Punishment Punishment creates endogenous (deeper) value. (Resources ina game are worth more if there is a chance they can be takenaway.) Taking risks is exciting. Possible punishment increases challenge. 27. 9. Punishment Many of them are simply rewards in reverse. Shaming Praise Loss of points. Points Shortened Play Prolonged Play Terminated Play A Gateway (new parts to play) Setback Spectacle Removal of Powers Expression Powers Resource Depletion Resources 28. 9. Punishment One thing that psychological study has shown is that reward isalways a better tool for reinforcement than punishment. 29. 10 .Freedom vs. Control http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MloaJR2YkGA Vs. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=nxaSt0aOxj0#t=176s http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bnck2oXdxMo 30. 11. Simple vs. Complex Innate complexity =>When the very rules of the game getvery complex, I call this innate complexity. This is the kind ofcomplexity that often gets a bad name. Emergent complexity =>This is the kind of complexity thateveryone praises. Games like Go that have a very simple ruleset that gives rise to very complex situations are said to haveemergent complexity. 31. 11. Simple vs. Complex Elegance =>Elegance is one of the most desirable qualities inany game, because it means you have a game that is simple tolearn and understand, but is full of interesting emergentcomplexity. 32. Puzzles The thing we really care about is how to create good puzzlesthat will improve our games. Here are ten principles of puzzledesign that can be useful in any game genre. 33. 1. Make the Goal Easily understood If players arent sure what they are supposed to do, they willquickly lose interest, unless figuring out what to do isactuallyfun. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=jmORLxAgip8#t=156s 34. 2. Make It Easy to Get Started When you present a puzzle to players (or a game of anykind), they should be able to clearly visualize what their firstfew steps would be. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=QxXkcg-stLE#t=135s 35. 3. Give a Sense of Progress Players need to see that they are making progress whensolving a difficult problem. Dit is de 35ste slide, nog 8 slides tegaan! 36. 4. Give a Sense of Solvability If players begin to suspect that your puzzle is not solvable,they will become afraid that they are hopelessly wasting theirtime and give up in disgust. You need to convince them that itis solvable. 37. 5. IncreaseDifficultyGradually Most puzzles are solved by taking a series of actions that areoften small steps toward a chain of goals that leads to solvingthe puzzle. It is these actions that should gradually increase indifficulty. Braid (http://news.bigdownload.com/2009/04/10/download-braid-demo/) 38. 6. Parallelism Lets the Player Rest Givethemseveraldifferent related puzzles at once. This way, ifthey get tired of banging their head on one of them, they cango off and try another for a while. 39. 7. PyramidStructureExtends Interest This means a series of small puzzles that each give some kindof clue to a larger puzzle. 40. 8. Hints Extend Interest Sometimes when a player is about to give up on your puzzle infrustration and disgust, a well-timed hint can renew their hopeand their curiosity. 41. 9. Give the Answer! Sure, itsa little sweeter if you solved it yourself, but if youhave given serious consideration to a problem, your problem-solving brain is primed for a rush of pleasure at merely seeingor hearing the answer. 42. 10. PerceptualShifts are a Double-EdgedSword When a player is able to make the perceptual shift, theyreceive a great deal of pleasure and solve the puzzle. But ifthey are not able to make the perceptual shift, they getnothing. 6 lucifers => probeer vier gelijkvormige driehoeken te maken=> je mag enkel de uiteindes van de lucifers met elkaarverbinden.. 43. 10. PerceptualShifts are a Double-EdgedSword http://www.metacafe.com/watch/621789/how_do_you_make_4_triangles_with_6_matches/