Fundamentals of biomedical engineering

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This book is designed to explain the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentations and in use of computing in biomedical engineering. Though this book is chiefly based on the syllabus of Uttar Pradesh Technical University, but an effort has been made to cover the syllabus of several other universities as well as based on my experience of teaching.

Transcript of Fundamentals of biomedical engineering

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  • Copyright 2007, NewAge International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by NewAge International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD NEWAGE INTERNATIONAL(P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24,Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2549-9
  • Bio denotes all things which are connected with life. Firstly man has learnt the use of herbs for treatment and the knowledge of botany becomes essential for the practitioner of medicine. Gradually man has learnt to apply laws of physics and chemistry to living things which has led to the evolution of sciences of biophysics and biochemistry. In recent years, there has been rapid progress in the field of the health care. The need to effectively utilize high technology equipment and systems in the health care necessitates the expertise of clinical engineers, hospital physicians and computer scientists. Hardly any patient today would pass through a hospital or even a family physicians chamber without the use of this technology. The knowledge of basic engineering and the need of biomedical engineers in health care is increasingly accepted. The biomedical engineering is the inter marriage of engineering and medicine. The biomedical engineering as a subject has been introduced in the engineering courses to equip the engineering graduates to work in the health care industry. It is, therefore, essential for engineering students of almost all disciplines to have a sound knowledge of biomedical engineering. This book is designed to explain the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentations and in use of computing in biomedical engineering. Though this book is chiefly based on the syllabus of Uttar Pradesh Technical University, but an effort has been made to cover the syllabus of several other universities as well as based on my experience of teaching. I have endeavoured to present a systematic explanation of the basic concepts of the biomedical engineering by firstly introducing the topics of anatomical terms and planes, terms related to movements medical terminology, histology and physiological systems of the body. A large number of objective type questions are included to enhance the understanding of the principles of theory. I express my gratitude to Dr. Jasdev Singh Sawhney, FRCR and Dr. Pooja Sachdev Sawhney MRCP for their valuable suggestions which have helped me immensly in conceptualizing and writing this book. I am also thankful to my doctoral guide, Dr. S. Prasad, NIET Greater Noida for moral support. I am also thankful to Dr. Sujay K.Guha, SMS, IIT kharagpur who has been my inspiration in the field of biomedical engineering. I am also thankful to Dr. V.K. Goswami and the faculty of GNIT, Greater Noida specially Mr. Devraj Tiwari of Mechanical, Prof O.P. Sharma and Mr. Manish of Information Technology, Mrs. Minakshi Awasthi of Physics and Mr. S.D. Nautyal of library for their contributions. Above all, I wish to record my sincere thanks to my wife, Jasbeer Kaur for her patience shown throughout the preparation of this book. I am also thankful to the staff of New Age Publishers PREFACE
  • who have associated with the completion of this book. Last but not least, I want to thank Mr. K.K. Aggarwal, chairman and Dr. A.M. Chandra, Director of Lord Krishna College of Engineering, Ghaziabad where I joined recently for their constant encouragement. I would appreciate receiving constructive suggestions and objective criticism from students and teachers alike with a view to further enhancing the usefulness of the book by e-mailing at G.S.SAWHNEY
  • Preface v 1. Introduction 1 2. Concepts of Physics, Mechanics and Fluid Mechanics 23 3. Biomedical Engineering 33 4. Biomechanics of Bone 38 5. Biomechanics of Soft Tissues 48 6. Skeletal Joints 52 7. Mechanics of the Spinal Column 57 8. Mechanics of Upper Limbs 62 9. Mechanics of Lower Limbs 74 10. The Cardiovascular System and Blood Flow 89 11. The Respiratory System 111 12. Kidney and Blood Flow 122 13. Prosthesis and Therapeutic Devices 127 14. Orthosis 141 15. Metallic Biomaterials 146 16. Polymeric Biomaterials 151 17. Bioceramics 158 18. Composite Biomaterials 162 19. Biogradable Polymeric Biomaterials 165 20. Orthopedic Prostheses Fixation 167 21. Physiological Signals and Transducers 169 22. Signal Processing 181 23. Digital Image Acquisition and Processing 186 24. Radiography 194 25. Computed Tomography 204 26. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 213 27. Ultrasound Imaging 219 28. Radioisotopes and Radiotherapy 226 CONTENTS
  • viii 29. Nuclear Medicine 232 30. Health Care Information and Communication 235 31. Biotelemetry 239 32. Application of Computer in Medicine 244 33. Telemedicine 249 34. Database Design Topologies and Network Security 255 Bibliography 260 Index 262
  • If only tool in your bag is a hammer then every problem in the world appears to be a nail. INTRODUCTION 1. The body is made up of the head, trunk and limbs. The trunk consists of the neck, thorax (chest) and abdomen (belly). The lower part of the abdomen is the pelvis. This word is also used for the bones of the pelvis. The lowest part of the pelvis or in other words the lowest part of the trunk is the perineum. The central axis of the trunk is the vertebral column, and the upper part of it (cervical part) supports the head. Head Neck Thorax Abdomen Thigh Leg Foot Planter surface Arm Fore Arm Ulnar side Pelvis PerineumHand Dorsal surface Palmar surface Dorsal surface Radial side ANATOMICAL TERMS AND PLANES Anatomical Terms
  • 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 2. The main parts of the upper limb are the arm, forearm and hand. Arm in strict anatomical term means the upper arm (the part between the shoulder and elbow) however, this word is commonly used for the whole of the upper limb. 3. The main parts of the lower limb are the thigh, leg and foot. Here also leg in strict anatomical form means the lower leg (the part between the knee and foot) but the word is commonly used for whole of the lower limb. 4. In order to describe the positions of structure in human anatomy, the body is assumed to be standing upright with the feet together and the head and eyes looking to the front with the arms straight by the side and the palms of the hands facing forwards. This is the anatomical position and structures are always described relative to one another using this as the standard position. This is also applicable even when the body is lying on the back to bed or when lying on a dissecting table. 5. The Median plane is an imaginary vertical longitudinal line through the middle of the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left halves. The sagittal plane is any plane that is parallel to the median plane. The adjective medial means nearer to the median plane, and lateral means farther from it. Thus we can say in anatomical position, the little finger is on the medial side of the hand and the thumb is on the lateral side, similarly the great toe is on the medial side of the foot and the little toe on the lateral side. If we consider forearm which has two bones with radius bone on the lateral side and ulna bone on the medial side, then the adjective radial and ulnar can be used instead of lateral & medial. Similarly in the lower leg where there are two bones, the fibula on the lateral side and the tibia on the medial side, the alternative adjectives fibular and tibial can be used. 6. Coronal planes are imaginary planes at right angles to the median plane. Horizontal or transverse planes are at right angles to both the median and coronal planes. Coronal plane Median plane Horizontal or Transverse plane Planes
  • INTRODUCTION 3 7. The terms anterior and posterior are used to indicate the front or back of the body respectively. Therefore we have anterior and posterior view of the body or any part of body or organ. It is also used to describe the relationship of two parts. One is said to be anterior or posterior to the other if it is closer to anterior or posterior to the body surface. Hence on the face, the nose is anterior to the ears and the ears are posterior to the nose. Sometimes ventral is used instead of posterior. 8. In describing the hand, the term palmar and dorsal surfaces are used instead of anterior and posterior. Similarly in describing the foot, the plantar and dorsal surfaces, are used instead of lower and upper surfaces. 9. The terms proximal and distal describe the relative distances from the roots of the limbs. The arm is proximal to the forearm and the hand is distal to the forearm. 10. The terms superior and inferior means nearer the upper or lower end of the body respectively. Hence the nose is superior to the mouth and, inferior to the forehead. Superficial means near the skin surface and deep means farther away from the surface. The terms internal and external are used to describe the relative distance of a structure from the centre of an organ or cavity. Ipsilateral and contra-l