French Revolution Why did the French Revolution occur?
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Transcript of French Revolution Why did the French Revolution occur?
French RevolutionWhy did the French Revolution occur?
King Louis XVIMarried age 15Crowned age 19IntrovertedUninterested in government
Queen Marie AntoinettePrincess and Archduchess of the Hapsburgs house of Austria Married at age 14Lavish in dress Madame DeficitScandals
GovernmentGeneral Estates-First Estate-Roman Catholic clergy (1% pop.)Second Estate-Nobility (2% of pop.)Third Estate (97 %) -Bourgeoisie, Artisans, PeasantsBourgeoisie-Middle class people (Doctors, Lawyers, Merchants)
EstatesClergyNobles5-10% Owned 25% of landBourgeoisieArtisansPeasants
Owned 40% of land
Causes of French RevolutionCausesSeven Years War (King Louis XV) (French and Indian War)
Enlightenment ideas- Social ContractJohn Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau
CausesCausesAmerican RevolutionCrop failuresBread Shortages
King Louis XVI calls Estates GeneralNeeds money for debtEstates General must vote
The National Assembly B2June 17, 1789Third Estates created new governing body
Tennis Court Oath--Wrote Constitution
Storming the BastilleBastille-Prison in Paris Symbol of monarchs power.
July 14, 1789 riot and took over the BastilleCommon People Sign King was losing powerThe Great FearRebellion spreads to the countryside
Womens CryWomen's march on Versailles mobbed and armedFighting for breadForced King to return to Paris and deal with the people
Declaration of the Rights of ManSlogan of French Revolution: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity-RousseauModeled after U.S. Declaration of IndependenceReadWritten by Marquis de Lafayette with help of Thomas Jeffersonhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXsZbkt0yqo
Church and StateNational Assembly confiscates and sells off church lands to pay for government debt
Civil Constitution of the ClergyClergy elected Government employees
Weakens power of Catholic Church
The Almost Great EscapeRoyal Family attempts to escape France
Caught near the boarder at Varennes, Fr.
Call for HelpDeclaration of Pillnitz -Austria and Prussia willing to aide French royal familyAustrian Emperor Leopold II is Queens brother
French response: Declared war on Austria
What did the European countries fear?
What to do with the King?Quick Write 2 minutesReview the ideas debated last weekShare out
September MassacresAug 1792Paris mobs attack and kill nobles and priests whom they accused of political crimes
Radicals take over the National AssemblyCall for new constitution
New ConstitutionConstitutional monarchy
Factions* (Define) within the AssemblyRoyalist (emigres)-nobles wanted to restore monarchySans Culottes (those without knee breeches) common people upper middle class Bourgeoisie who wanted to have influence within the government (Radicals/mobs)
The French RepublicNational Convention (Sept. 1792)
Wrote first democratic constitutions (another one)Monarchy abolishedExtend vote to all males with or without property
FactionsJacobins vs. Girondists
Girondists moderates, felt Revolution went too farMiddle class
Jacobins radicalMountains most radical JacobinsCalls for the execution of the King
Maximilien RobespierreJacobinLawyerMost Controversial figure of the French RevolutionNational Convention: Committee of Public Safety
Marquis de Lafayette GirondistMilitary commander in America during American Revolution
Wrote: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens
Georges Danton-Jacobin New Republics: Minister of Justice
Jean-Paul MaratJacobinNational Convention memberFriend of the People public paper
Hated by Girondists
OFF WITH HIS HEAD!Jan. 1793 King Louis XVI was beheaded
Tried before the National Convention and convicted of conspiring against the liberty of the nation
The Reign of Terror
WARFrance vs. Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Holland, Spain (1793)National Convention instituted draft 18-25 armyFirst draft on European continent
1796 French armies commanded by young Napoleon Bonaparte
Reign of TerrorRevolution gone bad!
The Committee of Public SafetyCreated by National ConventionDutiesDraft people into the armyFamous Leaders : Danton, Marat, Robespierre
Robespierreused committee to get rid of enemies of the cause
Took control of National Convention so The Committee of Public Safety had more power
Reign of TerrorJuly 1793-July 1794 Committee Public SafetyLead by Robespierre
GuillotinedEnemies of the Republic40,000+ people executed DantonMarie Antoinette
Jean Paul MaratJacobinSpoke out with Friend of the People
Killed in his bathtubStabbed by Charlotte Corday GirondistWas guillotined for death of Marat
Terror turns inwardDantonCharged with trying to over throw the government
Charged by radicals
Robespierre and followers guillotinedArrested and convicted by the National Convention
Public Safety committee dismantledJacobin clubs closed
The Directory 1795-1799New Legislative body The DirectoryTwo house parliamentExecutive head 5 menNew ConstitutionOnly upper middle class men could vote only 20,000 men
Army put down riots under leadership of Napoleon
Napoleon BonaparteCommander of French forces fighting the Austrians in Italymoved up through the ranksMarriage helped his status
Improved soldiers conditionsGains soldiers support
Coup d etatBackgroundNapoleon in Egypt fighting the BritishDefeated at the Battle at the NileFlees back to ParisHeros welcome the peopleCoupNapoleon and armed soldiers march into the Directory kick out legislatorsThe new Reign beginnings
Napoleons France1799 Napoleons DictatorshipRestoring OrderNapoleon appoints officersBank of FranceEveryone pays taxesMade business loansControlled inflation Created SchoolsSecondary schools, Technical schools, Universities(step towards public schools)
Napoleons FranceNapoleonic Code-Enlightenment ideas that all citizens were equal before the lawReligious toleranceState more important than the individualLimited freedom of speechCensorshipWomens rights limited (Men were head of house)
Napoleons FranceThe ChurchMade peace with Catholic ChurchNapoleon still appointed bishops and paid clergyPope forgave taken church lands
Emperor Napoleon1804 named himself EmperorCrowned himself
Road to Napoleonic Europe France vs. Great Britain, Austria, Spain, Italy, (Russia)Trade, ports, and economicsconquered: Spain, Italy, GermanyAttempts: Russia and Great Britain Lessons not learned from History are bound to be repeated-Who did not learn their history?
Napoleons Down FallNapoleonic Wars 1799-1815French fighting since Declaration of War on Austria in 1792Invasion of Russia600,000 soldiers from all over EuropeRussia Scorched Earth policyRussian Winter, no food, no shelter400,000 soldiers die (wounds, starvation, exposure)
Napoleons Down FallMarch 1814 Napoleon forced to surrenderForeign monarchs return France to King Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI)
Napoleon exiled to Elba, off ItalyRaises an army and comes back as EmperorDefeated at Waterloo, by British Exiled to the island of Saint Helena under house arrest Dies 1821
Napoleon Tyrant or Unifier?