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Use this Power Point created by Ms. Ariemma to help you study about the French Revolution.

Transcript of French Revolution PowerPoint

  • 1. Characteristics and Causes

2.

  • Each group is given lyrics to a song that relates to revolutions. Your job is to read the song lyrics and summarize the main ideas of the song. You should answer these three questions in your notebook before we discuss:
    • What do these songs have to say about the causes of revolutions?
    • Who are those involved in revolutions?
    • What are some emotions that go along with revolutionary ideas?

Revolution Songs 3.

  • A term used to describe an aggressive overthrow of a government structure or social construct or a massive sudden societal values.
  • Usually represents a complete turnaround from one way of doing things to another way, which is drastically opposite.

What is a Revolution? 4.

  • A political idea:A dramatic shift in power where a society rejects and overthrows its government and institutions, along with ideas that have been used to justify them.
  • Change in a revolution is total.
  • Most revolutions are motivated by the masses, using their advantage to overwhelm their own leadership.

Major Characteristics of a Revolution 5.

  • Violence is a common feature, usually seen through the execution of the rulers.
  • Prosperity and employment are reorganized.
  • For thousands of years, society was remarkably static-agricultural society where political change seemed impossibly
    • What changed this?

Major Characteristics 6.

  • Material conditions- taxation, drought, famine, economic downturns
  • Oppression or dire poverty
  • Defeat in war
  • Foreign rule- often seen in wars of Independence
  • Domino effect-French soldiers who had fought on the American side of Independence often returned to France imbedded with new ideas of liberty.

Driving forces of Revolutions 7.

  • Revolutionary Ideas-new ideas that were coming out of the Enlightenment.
  • Social Causes - the division of the three estates and the unfair taxation laws.
  • Economic Depression - the 1770s-1780s brought economic depressions, with a downturn of economics and trade. This led to a lack of work and a deep hunger.

Major causes of the French Revolution 8.

  • What are some characteristics of revolutions we discussed yesterday?

Focus Question 9.

  • Poor Economy
  • Poverty
  • Massive Spending by the royals
  • Hatred of Marie Antoinette
  • Enlightenment Ideas
  • The American Revolution

Causes of the French Revolution 10.

  • Political Power
  • Social Equality
  • Food
  • Respect
  • Ability to provide for their families
  • Royalty to step down

Needs of the French People 11.

  • Clergy (Church)- privileged estate.
  • Less than 1% of the population but owned 10% of the land.
  • Not only were they minimally taxed, but they collected 10% tithe from the people ( tax-like payment).

First Estate 12.

  • Nobility- holding the highest positions in the Church, the army, and the Government.
  • 2% of the population and controlled the majority of the wealth.
  • Exempt from paying taxes of any kind, and collected rent and customary dues from the peasantry.

Second Estate 13.

  • Consisted of everyone not in the other two estates- Bourgeoisie, peasantry, and urban artisans. (made up 98% of the population)
  • Bourgeoisie -
    • Merchants, manufacturers, bankers, doctors, lawyers, and intellects.
    • All had wealth, but wealth did not mean status or privilege.

Third Estate 14.

  • The Peasantry -
    • Consisted of approx. 21 million people and lived in utmost poverty.
    • Collectively owned 30-40% of the available land, which was usually small plots. Most land was rented from peasants who were able to afford it or the nobility.
    • Paid taxes to the king, taxes to the church, and taxes and dues to the lord of the manor, as well as numerous dues on wine, salt, and bread.

Third Estate 15.

  • 1789:
    • Taxes and rent increased
    • Methods of farming were inadequate, and there was a poor harvest.
    • Prices of bread and other goods rose at a quicker rate than wages.
    • Wages increased by 22%, while the cost of living increase by 62%.

Third Estate 16. Focus Question

  • What were some of your reactions to this exercise?
  • How do these reactions relate to the reactions of the 3 rdestate to their unequal treatment?

17.

  • Poor people were starving and when the price of bread increased, angry mobs formed.

Economic Conditions in France 18.

  • French Congress consisting of three estates- first meeting in nearly 200 years.
  • King Louis VI assembled the estates to pass a tax increase, however the Third estate objects and develops their own plan.
    • Why would the Third estate object?

Meeting of the Estates General 19.

  • Locked out of the estates meeting, the Third estate meets at a local tennis court.
  • Vowed to create a new French constitution.

Tennis Court Oath 20.

  • On June 17, 1789, the Third estate renames itself the National Assembly and vows to change France by ending absolute monarchy and establishing a representative government.
  • King Louis XVI held a general meeting where the government attempted to intimidate the Third estate into submission.

National Assembly 21.

  • Inspired by the National Assembly, commoners began to riot in protest of the rising prices.
  • Revolutionaries first raided the Paris town hall in pursuit of arms, but then realized the Bastille contained a large armory.
  • On July 14, 1789,angry citizens in support of the National Assembly stormed the prison in Paris.

Storming of the Bastille 22. Storming of the Bastille 23.

  • Most of the uprisings that began, occurred in the struggling countryside of France.
  • Peasants and farmers who suffered under high prices and unfair feudal contracts, began to wreak havoc on rural France.

Fear Sweeps France 24.

  • On August 26, 1789, the National Assembly issuedthe Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
    • A document that guaranteed due process in judicial matters and establish sovereignty.
    • Every person was a Frenchman and equal.
  • French people embraced the document, while the king and nobles did not.

Declaration of the Rights of Man 25.

  • The National Assembly joined by nobles acting out of fear make sweeping reforms, which eliminate the privileges of the church and the nobles.

National Assembly Reforms France 26.

  • The National Assembly became the Legislative Assembly which limited the kings power.
  • Radicals, Moderates, and Conservatives disagreed on governmental ideas.

Legislative Assembly 27.

  • King Louis XVI had contact with the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Sweeden, asking for their help in restoring his family to power.
  • In June 1791, the royal family attempted to escape to the Austrian border, but was caught by revolutionaries and brought back to Paris.
  • In August 1791, Prussia and Austria demanded the king be unarmed and restored to power, or military force would be used to restore the monarchy.
  • On April 20, 1972, the Legislative Assembly declared war against Austria.

War with Austria 28.

  • Autumn of 1972, a National Convention was elected to oversee the country under the new Constitution created by the Legislative Assembly.
  • First action was to abolish the monarchy- the Republic of France was created.
  • Next action was to execute the king- onJanuary 21, 1793, King Louis XVI was found guilty of treason and was executed at the guillotine.

Execution of the King 29. Execution of the King 30.

  • New device created in 1792 to make executions efficient, human, and democratic.
  • In October of 1793, Marie Antoinette was also executed.
  • Symbolic of the declaration of sovereignty.

Guillotine 31. Maximilien Robespierre 32.

  • A Committee on Public Safety was created to maintain order within France.
  • Robespierre rose to power- he was leader of the Jacobins and banished the Girondins.
    • He promised a republic of virtue
    • Ruled with terror and his rule became known as theReign of Terror .
    • Dictator from July 1793-1794
    • Executed on Ju