French revolution & napoleon

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  • 1.The French Revolution & Napoleon 1789-1815 (Chapter 23)

2. Section 1: French Revolution Begins 3. Lady Gagas French Revolution Intro 4. What was France like in the 1770s? OLD REGIME= the social and political system of France Under this system, the people of France were divided into social classes, or ESTATES 5. Social Class: The Privileged Estates First 2 estates privileged Privileges: High offices Exempt from paying taxes Didnt like Enlightenment ideas- threatened their power First Estate= Roman Catholic Church Owned 10% of land in France Second Estate= Rich nobles 2% of the population Owned 20% of the land 6. The Third Estate 7. Wife Swap: French Estates 8. Enlightenment Ideas: New ideas of power and authority Third Estate was inspired by American Revolution Questioned the structure of society and what government should be 9. Economic Troubles By 1780s, Frances economy was declining Burden of taxes Cost of living was rising Bad weather crop failure (shortage of grain) price of bread doubled starvation 10. Bread Riots 11. Weak Leaders Louis 16th (XVI) Marie Antoinette Inherited debt from previous kings Borrowed $ in order to help Americans in revolutionaries in the war against Britain (Frances chief rival) Lacked ability to make decisions Cared little about government affairs Interfered often in politics and would give bad advice Member of the royal family of Austria (enemy of France) and wasnt popular Spent larges amounts of $ (nicknamed, Madame Deficit) 12. Cribs: Louis XVI 13. Estates-General When Louis tried to raise taxes on the nobility, the Second Estate formed him to call a meeting of the ESTATES-GENERAL to approve the tax =an assembly of representatives from all 3 estates First meeting in 175 years Met at Versailles, May 5, 1789 14. The National Assembly Medieval Estates-General everyone gets one vote from each estate Problem: 3rd Estate felt that they were not represented Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes= clergymen who suggested the 3rd estate should assembly their own NATIONAL ASSEMBLY and pass laws for France 15. Tennis Court Oath Arrived at the Estates- General and they were locked out- broke down a door to an INDOOR TENNIS COURT Stayed till they drew up a new constitution TENNIS COURT OATH= pledge of the National Assembly 16. Storming the Bastille Rumors started that Louis was going to use military force to dismiss the National Assembly AND that foreigners were coming to attack Paris July 14 (Bastille Day)- mob searching for gunpowder and arms stormed the BASTILLE (Paris prison) Hacked the prison commander and several guards- putting their heads on pikes and taking them around town SYMBOLIC- revolution of France 17. Bastille 18. Bastille Day 19. Great Fear Great Fear= wave of panic Armed with pitchforks & farming tools Broke into nobles manors and houses and destroyed documents that bound the to pay feudal dues Women rioted over rising prices of BREAD and marched on Versailles Next, they went after the King and Queen- broke into palace, killing guards, demanded they leave Versailles and return to Paris- they did 20. Section 2: Revolution, Reform & Terror Main Idea: The revolutionary government of France made reforms but also used terror and violence to retain power Why it matters? Some governments that lack support of a majority of their people still use fear to control their citizens 21. The Assembly Reforms France 1789 Most likely motivated by fear, some nobles joined the National Assembly What they did? Got rid of the First & Second Estates the Old Regime was dead 22. The Rights of Man National Assembly adopted the Rights of Man and of the Citizen= a statement of revolutionary ideas, that reflected the Declaration of Independence life, liberty, property, security, resis tance to oppression Slogan- Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Women tried to declare the rights of women, but they were rejected, saw as enemies of the Revolution and some were even executed. 23. A State-Controlled Church 24. Louis Tries to Escape 25. Divisions Develop Limited Monarchy was created by the new constitution Stripped the king of his authority, but he still held the executive power to enforce laws Legislative Assembly= created laws and to approve or reject declarations of war 26. Factions Split France Radicals (Left winged) Moderates (Centrists) Conservatives (Right winged) Extreme change Want some change Few changes Emigres San-Culottes Nobles and others who had fled France who wanted to restore the Old Regime those without knee breeches (aka regular trousers) 27. War & Execution (Page 658-660) France at War Who attacked France? Why did they attack France? What are the September Massacres? What is the National Convention? Jacobins Take Control Who are the Jacobins? Who is Jean Paul Marat? What power did Louis have under the Jacobins? How did Louis die? Guillotine= The War Continues What was the extreme step the Jacobins took to increase their army size? 28. Guillotine 29. Terror Grips France Jacobins had many enemies: peasants, foreigners, church leaders Maximilien Robespierre= Jacobin leader, governed as a dictator Set out to build a republic of virtue by wiping out every trace of Frances past Reign of Terror= period of Robespierres rule enemies were tried and guillotined Enemies went against Robespierre, radicals Justified that he was returning France to a virtuous state Famous victims: George Danton (member of National Convention), Marie Antoinette 40,000 killed during the reign of terror 30. Robespierre 31. Maries Execution 32. Marat & Marie Antoinettes Death 33. End of Terror Fearing for their own safety, many turned on Robespierre- he was guillotined New Government: Power went to the upper middle class 2 house legislative and an executive body of 5 men (Directory) 34. Homework: Chaper 23:3 (Napoleon Forges an Empire 35. Section 3: REVIEW Napoleon 36. Napoleon Music Video 37. Historical Misconception: Napoleon is short? After his death, he was measured 52 according to French height, which wouldve made him 56 according to British standard 38. Napoleon Bonaparte Coup dEtat (blow to the state) Plebiscite Lycees Concordat Napoleonic Code Crowned as Emperor 39. Napoleons Cout dEtat (Blow to the State) Speech 40. Napoleons Empire Napoleons Empire American Colonies Europe Battle of Trafalgar French Empire 41. Louisiana Purchase 42. Section 4: Napoleons Empire Collapses Main Idea: Napoleons conquests aroused nationalistic feelings across Europe and contributed to his downfall Why it matters? In the 1990s, nationalistic feelings contributed to the breakup of nations such as Yugoslavia 43. Napoleons 3 Mistakes 44. Mistake #1: The Continental System 45. Mistake #2: The Peninsular War (1/2) Why did it start? Napoleon attempted to force Portugal to accept the Continental System, by sending an invasion force through Spain Result: Napoleon removed the Spanish king and put his brother in charge Spanish people felt more nationalism and fought back Spanish worried that the French would weaken the Catholic Church because of what they saw in the French Revolution 46. Mistake #2: The Peninsular War (2/2) Peninsular War= named because Spain lies on the Iberian Peninsula How long? 6 years Guerillas= Spanish peasant fighters, worked in small groups and ambushed French troops while hiding British sent aid to the Spanish Napoleon lost 300,000 men Lesson learned Nationalism can win wars 47. Mistake #3: The Invasion of Russia-1812 (1/2) Why did it start? The Russian czar refused to stop selling grain to Britain AND both Russia and France had competing claims on Poland Start of Invasion: Napoleon invaded with 420,000 troops Alexander retreated While the Russian retreated, they used the SCORCHED-EARTH POLICY, leaving nothing for the French to eat 48. Israel 2009: Scorched-Earth Policy 49. Mistake #3: The Invasion of Russia-1812 (2/2) 50. Napoleons Invasion of Russia 51. Napoleons Downfall 52. Napoleon Suffers Defeat Napoleon was able to raise another army Problem: his army was untrained and ill prepared for battle All the allies against France, team up and easily defeated Napoleon Russia & Prussias leaders led a victory parade through Paris Napoleon wanted to fight on, but his generals did not Napoleon was banished to Elba (a tiny island off the coast of Italy) 53. Count of Monte Cristo: Meet Napoleon 54. 100 Days (1/2) Many Frenchmen thought the new king (Louis XVIII) wanted to do some of the French Revolutions progress Napoleon escaped from Elba and received by joyous crowds who marched him to Paris Within days, Napoleon was the emperor of France 55. Return from Elba 56. 100 Days (2/2) In response, European allies gathered an army and prepared for a Battle at Waterloo (village of Belgium) French vs. British (Duke of Wellington) & Prussia Result: after a few days, the French had to retreat 100 Days= Napoleon last effort for power, disposing the king and becoming emperor 57. End of Napoleon 58. Eiffel Tower 59. Section 5: Congress of Vienna Main Idea: After exiling Napoleon, European leaders at the Congress of Vienna tried to restore order and reestablish peace Why it matters now? International bodies such as the United Nations plays an active role in trying to maintain world peace and stability today 60. Congress of Vienna 61. Prince Klemens von Metternich 62. Metternichs Plan for Europe Metternichs Plan Balance of Power Containment of France Legitimacy Didnt want to leave France powerless Afraid if they split France up than other Powers would do what France did Made countries around France stronger How? Some united, some Were recognized as Independent countries = those who had lost Power under Napoleon Should be restored to power Was it a success? YES 1. For the first time, the nations of an entire continent had cooperated to control