French Revolution

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  • 1.
    • Have you ever witnessed a riot? If so, briefly describe what happened. If not, what are the images that come to your headwhen you think of riots?
  • 2.Is there anything that would cause you to join a riot? Explain.

Do Now 2. The French Revolution (1789-1799) 3. Before we get started, lets go over a couple of definitions:

  • Political Revolution
  • Revolution

= Radical Change = An overthrow of apolitical system resulting in a dramaticchange in government. 4. Long Term Causes ofThe French Revolution Lets first look at the 5. 1.Kings Louis XVIs Abuse of Power

  • He couldarrestanyone on any charge
  • He spent large amounts of money onhimself
  • He held secrettrials (he was judge and jury all in one)

6. 2.Inequality Among Social Classes

  • They got the most important governmentjobs , paidno taxes ,andlived in luxury.
  • Privileged Class -3%of the population
  • First Estate:Members of theClergy
  • Second Estate: Nobles

7. Inequality Among Social Classes Contd:

  • Unprivileged Class(The bourgeoisie) -97%population
  • Third Estate:Doctors, lawyers, merchants, farmers
  • Paid mosttaxes , most were poor, no say in the government

8. 3.Unfair Tax System

  • Costlywarsincreased taxes
  • Taxes were applied to theThird Estate
  • TheFirst and Second Estatewere exempt from taxes
  • Townsstarted taxing each others goods which hurttrade

9. 4. Enlightenment Ideas

  • AmericanRevolution inspired French Revolution
  • Stirred interest in reforming themonarchyand ending privileges of theclergyand nobles

10. Lets see how much you remember. Who were the three prominent Enlightenment thinkers that you have already learned about? 11. Remember these guys? Locke Montesquieu Rousseau Give yourself a pat on the back if you did. 12. 5.Struggle For Power:

  • Nobles refused to pay taxes unless King summonedEstates General , with all 3 classes represented

13. Now lets look at the moreImmediate Causes of the French Revolution 14. 1.Thenobleswanted to use theEstates Generaltocontrol theking. 15. 2.However, theThird Estate , orbourgeoisie,opposed them because of unfairvotingmethods. 16. 97% 1 600 3rd 2% 1 200 2nd 1% 1 200 1st Percentage of the population Votes in the Estates General Representatives in the Estates General Estate or Social Class 17. Do you see a problem with the way that the voting works in the Estates General? Explain. What do you think that the Third Estate can or should do to rectify this situation? What do you think??? 18. The First and Second Estates supported by heavy taxes imposed on the Third Estate. 4. What conclusion about Frances three estates can be drawn from the situation depicted in this cartoon? 19. Marie Antoinette A Woman of the Revolution 5. What details of the womens clothing and expressionsmost clearly show the concerns in their lives? Do Now 20. Tennis Court Oath

    • 6.The Third Estate moved into the palace's indoor tenniscourt to meet and demanded a constitution for France. They swore not to leave until their demands were met. This oath was called theTennis Court Oath.

21. For each situation, determine if it describes a political, social oreconomic condition in France at the time of the revolution. Nobles had the right to hunt game. However, peasants were forbidden even tohunt the rabbits that destroyed their crops.A rise in the population created an increase in the demand for goods and services. The people charging for these goods and services jacked up the prices (inflation). Only nobility were eligible for top government, military, court and church jobs.Do Next Lets review the conditions that existed in France at this time. 22. The Third Estate Awakens What do you think is going to happen now that the Third Estate has awoken? 23. The Revolution Begins.. (1789-1792) 24. Bastille Day

  • 7.The bourgeoisie stormed andcapturedthe Bastille, a Paris prisonand a symbol of theOld Regime .Considered a victory for the masses, this displayed the power of thebourgeoisie and marked the start of therevolution .

25. NationalAssemblyCreated June 17, 1789

  • 8.TheThirdEstate declared themselves the National Assembly.

26. Accomplishments of the National Assembly

  • Issued Declaration of the Rights of Man

This stated that all Frenchmen had basic rights of speech, religion, and press. It denied theDivine Right Theoryand said that government rested on the consent of the people. Before After 27.

  • 2. Reformed thelegalsystem:
  • Elected judges, trial by jury,ended brutalpunishment .

3. Wrote aconstitution(1791): Reformed the government byestablishing a limitedmonarchy. 4. Abolished the specialtreatment of nobles andclergy . 28. If you were part of the Third Estate and had to come up with a slogan for the French Revolution, what would it be? The king is a fink and the nobles and clergy stink! Place Your Slogan Here 29.

  • Liberty, Equality , Fraternity

Actual Slogan: 30. The Capture Of Louis XVI Youre in my world now king! Down with the Old Regime! I think that Im in a heap of trouble. 31. THE REPUBLIC (1792-1794) 32. republic : A political system in which a country is ruled by law, has representative government, and isdemocratic in nature. What is a republic you say? I am glad you asked. 33. Why would the French Revolution be seen as a threat to Austria, Prussia and other European countries?Hint: Look at the types of governments that were in Europe 34.

  • 1.PrussiaandAustriadeclared war on France to aid the royal family and restore the monarchy.
  • 2. Aradicalgroup ( Jacobins ) took over the Assembly and declared France a republic.

35. 3. Theradicalswere led byMaximilien Robespierre and set up theCommittee on Public Safety . 36. 4. King Louis XVI was put on trial by treason, found guilty,beheadedin 1793. 37. REIGN OF TERROR

  • 5.Reign of Terror(1793-1794)
  • The Republic began to execute anyone considered an enemy of the revolution.Nobles or anyone who spoke out was beheaded with theGUILLOTINE .

38. Earlier Forms of Punishment Criminals in the 17 thand 18 th century Francesometimes faced one or more of the following fatal penalties: Burning Strangulation Being broken on a wheel Hanging Dismemberment Beheading Being drawn and quartered by a horse In 1790, Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotine proposed an execution machine that would be efficient, humane, and democratic.Some doctors believed that a victims head retained its hearing and eyesight for up to 15 minutes after the blades deadly blow. France continued to use the guillotine until the late 1970s. 39. REIGN OF TERROR CONTINUED

  • 6.Finally, moderateleaders were able totake back poweronce threat of warended.Robespierreand other radical leaders wereexecuted.

40. END OF REVOLUTION(1795-1799) 41.

  • The Reign of Terror ended when the French government was taken over by a popular general who became the most powerful leader in European history since Charlemagne.
  • Who do we think that is?..

42. Napoleon Bonaparte 43. 44. Results of the French Revolution

  • 1. Political power in France shifted from kings and nobility to thebourgeoisie(middle class).

2. Increasednationalistfeelings in France and elsewhere. 3. Ideals of revolution likeLiberty,Equality, Fraternityspread to other parts ofEurope and the world.