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  • 1. French RevolutionLiberty, Equality, Fraternity1780 CE 1791 CE

2. The French Revolution Begins The French Revolution began in 1789 The French Revolution was more complex, violent,and radical than the American Revolution The French Revolution tried to create a newpolitical order and a new social order It is considered a major turning point in Europeanpolitical and social history Before the Revolution, French society wasdrastically unequal; the population wasdivided into three orders, called estates 3. Three Estates of France First Estate Second Estate Third Estate The first estate, the The second estate, The third estate, theclergy, consisted of the nobility,common people,rich and poor. inherited their titles was by far the largest There were veryand got their wealth group in France. Everyone who was wealthy abbots, from the land. not a member of the members of the Some members first or second estates aristocracy who of the nobilitywas a member of the lived in luxury off had little money,third. It included: of wealthy church but had all the Wealthy lands.privileges ofmerchants, There were poornoble rank.whose wealth parish priests, However, mostrivaled that of who lived muchenjoyed both the nobility Doctors and like the peasants.privileges and lawyers wealth. Shopkeepers The urban poor The peasantswho worked theland. 4. Three EstatesThree Estates The Second Estate held most of the leading positions ingovernment and were crucial to the French Revolution The peasants of the Third Estate were resentful about therelics of feudalism, in which the obligations of serfdomremained, like paying fees for using village facilities andmaking forced contributions to the clergy An important part of the Third Estate was the bourgeoisie,or the middle class; members of the middle class wereunhappy with the privileges held by nobles, especially sincesome of the bourgeoisie were as wealthy or wealthier thanthe nobles The bourgeoisie and the second estate nobles were drawn to the ideas of the Enlightenment and were increasingly upset with the monarchical system resting on privileges of an old and rigid social order 5. Financial Crisis Social conditions formed a long-range background tothe French Revolution The French economy suffered a periodic crisis; badharvests in 1787 and 1788 and a slowdown inmanufacturing led to food shortages, rising prices forfood, and unemployment The number of poor people in France surged andreached crisis proportions on the eve of the Revolution In spite of the problems among commoners, theFrench government and its king and queen spentenormous sums on wars and luxuries; the king andqueen were known for their extravagance 6. Louis XIV & Marie AntoinetteLouis XVI was an awkward, clumsy man who hada good heart but was unable to relate to peopleon a personal level. He often appeared unfeelingand gruff. He was insecure and seems to havedisliked being King of France. When one of hisministers resigned, he was heard to remark, "Whycant I resign too?"Marie Antoinette, in her early years as Queen, wasflighty and irresponsible. She was from Austria-Hungry and the marriage was used as an alliancebetween countries. She spent huge amounts on clothes, buying a new dress nearly every other day. Being Austrian, she was terribly unpopular in France and had few friends. 7. The Palace of VersaillesThe King and Queen ofFrance lived in luxuryand splendor at themagnificent Palace ofVersailles outside ofParis. 8. Chapter 18: Section1 The FrenchRevolution BeginsBLUE: First Estate, GREEN: Second Estate, RED: Third Estate Because of the unequal standards of living, taxes and government representation This happened. 9. Section 1: The Financial CrisisThe government of France, however, wasbankrupt and was facing a serious financialcrisis.The crisis resulted from:An inefficient and unfair taxstructure, which placed theburden of taxation on those leastable to pay, the third estateOutdated medieval bureaucraticinstitutionsA drained treasury which was theresult of: Aiding the Americans duringDue to the excessive spending of thethe American Revolution French government, Louis XVI called a Long wars with England meeting. It was a meeting that would Overspending have representatives from all threeestates. It was called the Estates-General. 10. The Estates General May 5, 1789 When the Estates General met, each estate solemnly marched into the hall at Versailles. The third estate dressed all in black, the nobility dressed in all their finery, and the clergy dressed in full regalia. 300 from 1st estate, 300 from 2nd estate and 600 from 3rd estate. Problem: traditionally, each Estate had 1 vote; the Third Estate was almost always outvoted by the other two estates; the Third Estate wanted 1 vote per person The King turned this idea down; he wanted to maintain the current system This angered the Third Estate, who acted quickly and formed the National AssemblyLead toThe National AssemblyJune 17, 1789Made up of 3rd estate members, Drafted a Constitution. They were locked out of theirmeeting place and moved their meeting to a tennis court 11. The Estates GeneralThe meeting of the Estates General May 5, 1789 12. Mouniers Suggestion, The TennisCourt OathLet us swear to God and our country that we will not disperseuntil we have established a sound and just constitution, asinstructed by those who nominated us. -M. MounierThe delegates agreed and all but one of the 578delegates signed it. Their oath is known as the Tennis Court Oath. It said: "The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom... decrees that all members of this assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate... until the constitution of the kingdom is established on firm foundations..." June 20, 1789The Third Estate wanted anational constitution andwere willing to fight for it. 13. The Storming of the Bastille On July 14, 1789, the mob, joined by some of the Kings soldiers, stormed the Bastille. The commander of the Bastille, de Launay, attempted to surrender, but the mob wouldnot accept it. He was killed as they poured through the gates. No guard was left alive. Later in the day the prisoners were released. There were only seven: Two were convicted forgers. One was a loose-living aristocrat put in prison by his own father. Nevertheless it was a great symbolic event, one which is still celebrated in Franceevery year. 14. The Great Fear By the end of July and beginning of August there were riots in the countryside. Peasants burned their nobles chateaux and destroyed documents which contained their feudal obligations. It was called "The Great Fear."The National Assembly responded to theGreat Fear. On the Night of August 4, 1789,one by one members of the nobility andclergy rose to give up: Feudal dues Serfdom The tithe Hunting and fishing rights Personal privileges.In one night feudalism was destroyed inFrance. 15. Declaration of the Rights of ManThe National Assembly adopted it on August 26,1789Inspired by the American Declaration ofIndependence, the Declaration of the Rights ofMan and the Citizen affirmed the rights of manto liberty, property, security, and resistance tooppression.The Declaration proclaimed freedom and equalrights for all men, access to public office basedon talent, and an end to exemptions fromtaxation; all citizens were to have the right totake part in the making of laws and freedom ofpress and speech were affirmed.Women were not included in the Declaration."Men are born free and equal in their rights....Theserights are liberty, property, security and resistance tooppression.The fundamental source of all sovereignty resides inthe nation.The law is the expression of the general will. AllThe Declaration of the Rights citizens have the right to take part personally, orthrough representatives, in the making of the law." of Man and the Citizen 16. Conditions in Paris Conditions were poor in Paris for the commonpeople. The price of bread was high and supplies wereshort due to harvest failures. Rumors spread that the King and Queen wereresponsible for the shortages Then French troops marched to the capital. Rumors spread quickly among the already restlessmobs that the King was intending to use themagainst the people. The dismissal of the Finance Minister Necker, whowas popular with the third estate, ignited thespark. 17. Womens March to Versailles On October 5, 1789, acrowd of women,demanding bread fortheir families, marchedtoward Versailles. When they arrived,soaking wet from therain, they demanded tosee "the Baker," "theBakers wife," and "theBakers boy". The King met with someof the women and Up to this point, the king had refused to acceptagreed to distribute allthe bread in Versailles to the decrees from the National Assembly on thethe crowd. abolition of feudalism and the Declaration of Rights. After the march of the women, the king was forced to accept the new decrees. 18. Church Reforms The Catholic Church had always played aprominent role in French political and social life. The National Assembly seized and sold many ofthe lands of the Church. The Church was secularized and a new CivilConstitution of the Clergy was put into effect Bishops and priests were to be elected by the people and paid by the state This allowed the French government to control the Church 19. A New Constitution The National Assembly completed a newConstitution; the Constitution of 1791, whichset up a limited monarchy According to the Constitution , there would still bea king, but a Legislative Assembly make the laws The Assembly was made up of 745 representatives Only men over 25 who paid specific amounts in taxes could vote, setting up a system in which only the more affluent members of society would be elected 20. Opposition to the New Order By 1791, the old order was destroyed. Many people, including the Catholic priests,nobles, and