French Revolution

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This is the French Revolution lecture for Nilsen's World History class.

Transcript of French Revolution

  • 1. The French Revolution

2. France in 1789

  • Crippling National Debt
  • Extensive unemployment
  • Widespread malnutrition and starvation

3. 4. Three Estates

  • First Estate
    • Clergy
    • .5% of population, 10% of land
  • Second Estate
    • Nobility
    • 1.5% of population, 25% of land
  • Third Estate
    • Commoners
    • 98% of population, 65% of land

5. Estates General

  • King convenes to raise taxes
  • Needed money because of Seven Years War and American Revolution

6. How should they vote? Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate 1 1 1 7. How should they vote? Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate 300 300 648 8. Royal Response

  • King locks out Estates General
  • Meet anyway as the National Assembly Third Estate only
  • Tennis Court Oath vow to meet until they have a constitution

9. Bastille

  • King fires financial advisor
  • Parisian crowds riot, storm Bastille prison
  • July 14, 1789 French Independence Day

10. National AssemblyExercises Power

  • August 1789 Assembly abolishes feudalism
  • December 1789 Assembly takes over property of church
    • Abolished churchs ability to tax
    • Confiscated church property
    • Made clergy state employees
    • Replaced church with the Cult of Reason

11. More National Assembly Actions

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
  • Libert, Egalit, Fraternit
    • Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (Brotherhood)
  • Eventually establish a constitutional monarchy

12. War

  • Austria and Prussia declare war on France
    • Defeated by nationalist French army
  • Led to execution of Louis XVI
  • Monarchy abolished, Republic established

13. Dissent in the National Assembly

  • Split between conservatives and radical liberals

Jacobins Montagnards (The Mountain) Girondists Monarchen (Royalists) 1790s: The Plain (swing votes) 14. Factions Turn on Each Other

  • Conservatives Girondins
  • Radicals Jacobins
  • Led by Maximilien Robespierre

15. Jean-Paul Marat

  • Jacobin who used his newspapers to influence public opinion
  • Whipped up public opinion against Girondins
  • Killed in his bathtub by Girondin assassin

16. Reign of Terror

  • Robespierre seizes opportunity
  • Cracks down on enemies
    • Girondins
    • Anyone who disagreed with him
  • Over 18,000 executed from 1793 to 1794
  • Eventually runs out of political support
    • Loses power
    • Is executed himself in 1794

17. After the Reign of Terror

  • Girondins take over and take revenge
  • Write a new constitution, but nothing changes
  • Very little control from the government
  • Much social unrest and riots
    • Military called upon to put them down
    • Napoleon very skilled at doing so
  • Napoleon takes over in 1799 coup detat

18. Big Picture Takeaway

  • French Revolution was a political failure
    • Traded a King for an Emperor
  • Elimination of Feudalism and church control had long-term effects
  • Revolutionary ideals had far-reaching appeal
  • Unified France
  • Set the stage for nationalism