French Revolution

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A ppt for class IX students for better comprehension of the topic- the French revolution.

Transcript of French Revolution

  • 1. Liberty, Equality, FraternityTHE FRENCH REVOLUTION Detail From Triumph of Marat, Boilly, 1794 (Musee des Beaux-Arts)

2. THE THREE ESTATES Before the revolution the French peoplewere divided into three groups: The first estate: the clergy The second estate: the nobility The third estate: the commonpeople (bourgeoisie, urbanworkers, and peasants). Legally the first two estates enjoyedmany privileges, particularly exemptionfrom most taxation. 3. The First Estate was of Catholic Church officials-~CLERGY~ 4. THE NOBILITY. With the exceptionof a few liberals,the nobilitywanted greaterpolitical influencefor themselvesbut nothing forthe third estate. 5. THE THIRD ESTATE TThis cartoon from theera of the FrenchRevolution depictsthe third estate as aperson in chains, whosupports the clergyand nobility on hisback.hainsk 6. TAX PAYERS !!The Third Estate bore the entire tax burden .* Tithe- 1/10th of the agricultural produce &* Taille- Tax paid to the state. Clergy and Nobility enjoyed at their cost. 7. THE FRENCH ROYALTY The royal familylived in luxury atthe Palace ofVersailles. Hall of Mirrors 8. LOUIS XVILouis XVI was anawkward,clumsy man who had agood heart but wasunable to relate topeople on a personallevel. 9. MARIE ANTOINETTEMarie Antoinette, inher early years asQueen, was flightyand irresponsible. She spent hugeamounts on clothes,buying a new dressnearly every otherday. Being Austrian, shewas terriblyunpopular in Franceand had few friends. 10. MARIE ANTOINETTE 11. THE PALACE OF VERSAILLES The King and Queen of France lived in luxury andsplendor at the magnificent Palace of Versaillesoutside of Paris. 12. GROWING MIDDLE CLASS-POLITICAL PHILOSOPHERSJohn LockeMontesquieu 13. SUBSISTENCE RIOTS 14. LONG QUEUES FOR BREAD!SUBSISTENCE CRISIS. 15. Calling the Estates Generalmeeting of the Estates General May 5, 1789l 16. THE TENNIS COURT OATH The delegates agreed and all but one ofthe 578 delegates signed it. Their oath is known as the Tennis Court Oath.oa"The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom... decrees that all members of this assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate... until the constitution of the kingdom is established on firm foundations..." June 20, 1789 17. MOUNIERS SUGGESTION Let us swear to God and our country that we will not disperse until we have established a sound and just constitution, as instructed by those who nominated us.-M. Mounier 18. The Tennis Court Oath by Jacques Louis David 19. A plate depictingEstates General.the Estates General met, each estate solemnlymarched into the hall at Versailles. When the Estates General met, eachestate solemnly marched into the hallat Versailles. The third estate dressed all inblack, the nobility dressed in all theirfinery, and the clergy dressed in black, the nobility dressed in all their finery, and the clergy dressed in full regalia. 20. THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY 21. WHERE IS THE MONEY? In this cartoon from the time, Louis is looking at thechests and asks Where is the tax money? The financial minister, Necker, looks on and says The money was there last time I looked." The nobles and clergy are sneaking out the doorcarrying sacks of money, saying "We have it." 22. Revolution Spreads to Common People .Cartoon representation of the confiscationof church lands 23. WOMENS MARCH TO VERSAILLES On October 4, 1789, a crowd of women, demandingbread for their families, marched toward Versailles. When they arrived, soaking wet from the rain, theydemanded to see "the Baker," "the Bakers wife,"and "the Bakers boy". The King met with some of the women and agreedto distribute all the bread in Versailles to the crowd. 24. RAGING MOB OR SOLDIERS OF LIBERTY?THE PARISIANS WHO STORMED THE BASTILLE The King was unwilling to use force andeventually ordered the first and secondestates to join the new National Assembly. The third estate had won. 25. Womens march to Versailles 26. The Storming of the Bastille!! The Bastille as a medieval fortress 27. MOBS SEARCH FOR WEAPONS !..! Mobs roamed in search of weapons. Although some muskets were found when they broke into a public hospital for wounded soldiers, there was no ammunition. The ammunition was stored in the Bastille. 28. The Fall of the Bastille!! 29. Liberated prisoners parading later in the day 30. Burning chateaux as the peasants riot in the countryside 31. DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND CITIZEN "Men are born free andequal in theirrights....These rights areliberty, property, securityand resistance tooppression. The fundamental sourceof all sovereigntyresides in the nation. The law is theexpression of thegeneral will. All citizenshave the right to takepart personally, orthrough representatives,in the making of thelaw." 32. THE KINGS RETURN TO PARIS Under pressure fromthe National Guard,the King also agreedto return to Pariswith his wifeand children. It was the lasttime the Kingsaw Versailles. 33. THE FLIGHT TO VARENNES Althoughthe King reluctantly accepted thenew constitution, he could not accept all thereforms (e.g., the Civil Constitution of theClergy) and decided to leave the country. On June 20, 1791, the King and his familyset out for the border in a carriage. The King was disguised as a steward and hisson was wearing a dress. At the border village of Varennes, he wasrecognized and eventually apprehended. 34. The apprehension of Louis XVI at Varennes 35. The Parisian Mob 36. THE SAN-CULOTTES-JACOBIN CLUB Atthe beginning of the revolution, the workingmen of Paris allowed the revolutionarybourgeoisie to lead them. But by 1790 the sans-culottes were beginning tobe politically active in their own right. They were called sans-culottes (literally, withouttrousers) because the working men wore loosetrousers instead of the tight knee breeches of thenobility. Eventually sans culottes came to refer to anyrevolutionary citizen. 37. The sans culottes The bourgeoisie 38. ATTACK ON THE TUILERIES The royal family was living under house arrest in theTuileries Palace. An angry mob got into the building on June 20, 1792, andfound their way to the King. The crowd shouted insults and was in an ugly mood. The King remained calm and obediently put on the red cap ofliberty (a symbol of revolution) at the mobs insistence. 39. Mob placing the red cap of liberty on the Kings head at the Tuileries 40. PRESSURE FROM THE PARIS MOB Whenthe mob thrust a bottle of wine at the King, he drank a toast to the health of the nation but refused to change his position on the clergy. Under the new constitutional monarchy, he hadexercised his veto of a proposal to punish priestswho refused to support the changes to thechurch. A religious man, the King felt it would violate hisconscience to agree to the mobs demands. Theincident ended without bloodshed but by August the mob was back. 41. August 10, 1792, attack on the Tuileries 42. THE EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI The constitutional monarchy put in place bymoderate revolutionaries gave way to a radicalrepublic. The National Convention decided to put Louis ontrial for his crimes. Although his guilt was never an issue, there was a realdebate in the Convention on whether the king shouldbe killed. They voted for his execution. On January 23, 1793 Louis Capet went to the guillotine in the Place de la Concorde, where a statue of his predecessor, Louis XV, once stood. At the scaffold he said "I forgive those who are guilty ofmy death." 43. The execution of Louis XVI 44. THE RISE OF THE JACOBINS Whenthe constitutional monarchy fell andhe King was put on trial for treason inDecember, the Girondins argued against hisexecution. The Jacobins thought he needed to die toensure the safety of the revolution. When the Jacobins were successful the tideturned against the Girondins. The Jacobins in the National Conventionhad 22 Girondin leaders arrested andexecuted. The Jacobins had won. 45. MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE "Terror is nothing otherthan justice, prompt,severe, inflexible" 46. THE REIGN OF TERROR Afterthe death of Louis in 1793, the Reign of Terror began. Marie Antoinette led a parade of prominent and not-so-prominent citizens to their deaths. The guillotine, the new instrument of egalitarianjustice, was put to work. Publicexecutions were considered educational.Women were encouraged to sit and knit duringtrials and executions. The Revolutionary Tribunal ordered theexecution of 2,400 people in Paris by July 1794.Across France 30,000 people lost their lives. 47. WATCH COMMITTEES TheTerror was designed to fight the enemies ofthe revolution, to prevent counter-revolution fromgaining ground. Most of the people rounded up were notaristocrats, but ordinary people. A man (and his family) might go to the guillotine forsaying something critical of the revolutionarygovernment. Watch Committees around the nation wereencouraged to arrest "suspected persons, ... thosewho, either by their conduct or their relationships, bytheir remarks or by their writing, are shown to bepartisans of tyranny and federalism and enemies ofliberty" (Law of Suspects, 1793). 48. SUSPENSION OF CIVIL LIBERTIES Civil liberties were suspended. The Convention ordered that "if material or moral proofexists, independently of the evidence of witnesses, thelatter will not be heard, unless this formality shouldappear necessary, either to discover accomplices or forother important reasons concerning the publicinterest." The promises of the Declaration of the Rights of Manwere forgotten. Terror was the order of the day. In the words ofMaximilien Robespierre, "Softness to traitors willdestroy us all." 49. THE LAST VICTIM OF THE REIGN OF TERROR Eventhe radical Jacobins, the supporters of Robespierre, come to feel that the Terror must be stopped. Danton rose in the Convention calling for an end to theTerror. He was its next victim. When Robespierre called for a