French revolution 3ab
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The Thermidorian ReactionBegins July 1794..consisted of the destruction of the instruments of Terror, and the institution of a new constitutional regime.WHY?Widespread belief that the revolution had become too radical weariness of the Terror fear the sans culottes were exerting far too much political influence The sans culottes will be replaced by wealthy middle class and professional individuals
The Thermidorian ReactionCurtailed the power of the Committee for Public Safety.Girondists allowed to take seats (appeared from hiding or prison)Some ..but by no means all of those individuals responsible for the Terror were removed from public lifeParis Commune outlawedClosed the Paris Jacobin Club. And Jacobin clubs in the provinces forbidden to communicate with each otherRepealed Law of 22 PrairialChurches were reopened.1795 freedom of worship for all cults was granted.Economic restrictions were lifted in favor of laissez-faire policies.August, 1795 a new Constitution is writtenmore conservative republicanism.
Characteristics of theThermidorIndividuals associated with or involved in the original Terror were attacked often murdered no more due process than before White TerrorBands of Jesus gangs of youth with aristocratic connections who avoided service in the army roamed streets like Sept. Massacres of 1792.Republic of Virtue replaced by republic of viceSelf-indulgence frivolous culture; salons return; wild fashions. Prostitution in Paris. New plays. Wild partiesReturn family life to before revolution (No more social or political change)Repeal of divorce laws. No improvement of womens educationRevival of Catholicism but the Convention continued to favor the Cult of the Supreme Being
Establishment of the DirectoryConstitution of 1793 abandonedConstitution of Year III initiatedconstitutional monarchy and democracy reflectedLegislature.Council of Elders [250 members] husbands or widowers over 40 years of ageCouncil of 500 men of at least 30 either married of single. initiates legislation.Executive. 5-man executive committee or oligarchy [to avoid a dictatorship].They accepted or rejected the legislation.Both houses elected by electors who owned or rented property worth 100-200 days labor [limited to 30,000 voters]. The electors were elected by all males over 21 who were taxpayers Or were soldiers..no property needed
Thermidorhas come to be associated with political reactionIf Fr.Rev had originated in pol. conflicts characteristic of 18th cent. BY 1795 It had become something very differentA pol. structure based on rank and birth had given away to a pol system based on equality and social status based on property ownership
Now what? The Fr. Rev. gives rise to questions of property distribution and economic regulations.Those qualifications Can not be ignored !
Representation had been established as a principle of politics!
In the leve en masse the French demonstrated to Europe the power of the secular ideal of nationhood!
Throughout Europe which new groups will gain representation and HOW?
Who were the BIG winners?Why?
Political Instability: 1795-1796May 20, 1795 Revolt of Prairial [Year III]October 5,-13 1795 : Vendmiresections of Paris revolt led by royalists against the ConventionWinter 1794-1795 Worst food shortages of the period= Inflation; bread riots. Convention put down with forceend of sans-culottesMilitary suppressed them with a general (Nappy) and a whiff of grapeshotTreaties of Basel in March and June 1795 peace with Prussia and SpainFear of both radicals and royalists in upcoming electionsDirectory formed ..social unrest..May, 1796 First communist revoltGracchus Babeuf and the Conspiracy of Equals
18 Brumaire (Nov. 9, 1799)Coup dtat by Napoleon.Approved by a plebiscite in December.Abbe Sieys: Confidence from below; authority from above.
A British Cartoon about Napoleons Coup in 1799
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