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  • 1.By: Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY

2. It was the best of times,it was the worst of times,it was the age of wisdom,it was the age of foolishness,it was the epoch of belief,it was the epoch of incredulity-- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities 3. The French Monarchy:1775 - 1793Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI 4. MarieAntoinett eand the RoyalChildren 5. Marie AntoinettesPeasant Cottage 6. Marie AntoinettesPeasant Cottage 7. The Necklace Scandal1,600,000 livres [$100 million today]Y Cardinal Louis Ren douard de RohanY The Countess de LaMotte 8. Let Them Eat Cake!Y Marie Antoinette NEVER said that!Y Madame DeficitY The Austrian Whore 9. Crane Brintons Anatomy ofYaHe borrowed his terms frompathology.Y Compares a revolution to afever or a disease:Revolution The revolutionary fever begins with the appearance of certain symptoms. It proceeds by advances and retreats to a crisis stage, or delirium. The crisis ends when the fever breaks. A period of convalescence follows, interrupted by a relapse or two before the recovery is complete. 10. Crane Brinton: ConditionsPresent Before a RevolutionOccurs1. People from all social classes are discontented.2. People feel restless and held down byunacceptable restrictions in society, religion, theeconomy or the govt.3. People are hopeful about the future, but they arebeing forced to accept less than they had hopedfor.4. People are beginning to think of themselves asbelonging to a social class, and there is a growingbitterness between social classes.5. The social classes closest to one another are themost hostile. 11. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution6. The scholars andOccurs thinkers give up on the way their society operates.7. The government does not respond to the needs of its society.8. The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups.9. The government is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself.10. The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily and unjustly. 12. Socio-Economic Data, 1789 13. The French UrbanPoor8070605040178730178820100 % of Income Spent on Bread 14. Financial Problemsin France, 1789a Urban CommonersBudget: Food80% a Kings Budget: Rent 25% Interest 50% Tithe 10% Army25% Taxes 35% Versailles 25% Clothing20% Coronation10% TOTAL170% Loans 25% Admin.25% TOTAL160% 15. French Budget, 1774 16. Where is the tax money? 17. Lettres de CachetY The French king could warrantimprisonment or death in asigned letter under his seal.Y A carte-blanche warrant.Y Cardinal Fleury issued 80,000during the reign of Louis XV!Y Eliminated in 1790. 18. Ancien Regime Map, 1789 19. The Suggested Voting Pattern:Voting by Estates Clergy 1 1st Estate Aristocracy 12nd Estate 1 Commoners 3rd EstateLouis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of thethree orders be conserved in its entirety. 20. The Number of Representativesin the Estates General: Vote by Head! Clergy1st Estate300 Aristocracy3002nd Estate648Commoners3rd Estate 21. Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes1st What is the ThirdEstate? Everything!2nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!3rd What does it demand? To become something therein! Abb Sieys1748-1836 22. Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614! 23. The Third EstateYAwakens but asThe commoners finally presented their credentialsnot as delegates of the Third Estate,representatives of the nation.Y They proclaimed themselves the NationalAssembly of France. 24. The Tennis Court Oath by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789 25. Europe on the Eve ofthe French Revolution 26. Storming the Bastille, July 14,1789Y A rumor that the king was planning a military coupagainst the National Assembly.Y 18 died.Y 73 wounded.Y 7 guardskilled.Y It held 7prisoners[5 ordinarycriminals & 2madmen]. 27. Crane Brinton: The Course thatRevolutions Seem to Take 1. Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end. 2. Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries. 3. Revolutionaries gain power and seem united. 4. Once in power, revolutionaries begin to quarrel among themselves, and unity begins to dissolve. 5. The moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes. 28. Crane Brinton: The Course thatRevolutions Seem to Take6. Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control.7. A strong man emerges and assumes great power.8. The extremists try to create a heaven-on- earth by introducing their whole program and by punishing all of their opponents.9. A period of terror [extreme violence] occurs.10. Moderate groups regain power. THE REVOLUTION IS OVER! 29. The Great Fear: PeasantRevolt (July 20, 1789)Y Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos]were sending hired brigands to attack peasants andpillage their land. 30. The Path of theGreatFear 31. Night Session of August 4,1789Y Before the night was over: The feudal regime in France hadbeen abolished. All Frenchmen were, at least inprinciple, subject to the same lawsand the same taxes and eligible forthe same offices. Equality & Meritocracy! 32. National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791Libert! Egalit!Fraternit!August DecreesAugust 4-11, 1789(A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) 33. BUT . . . . .Y Feudal dues were not renounced outright[this had been too strong a threat to theprinciple of private property!]Y Peasants would compensate their landlordsthrough a series of direct payments forobligations from which they had supposedlybeen freed. Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate. Their GoalSafeguard the right of private property!! 34. The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of theBourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen! 35. The Tricolor is theFashion! 36. The Liberty Cap: Bonne Rouge 37. Revolutionary SymbolsCockadeLibertLa RepublicRevolutionary Clock 38. Revolutionary PlayingCards 39. The Declaration of theRights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789V Liberty!V Property!V Resistance tooppression!V Thomas Jeffersonwas in Paris at thistime. 40. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the CitizenPosed New Dilemmas1. Did women have equal rights with men?2. What about free blacks in the colonies?3. How could slavery be justified if all men were born free?4. Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights? 41. March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread. We want the baker, the bakers wifeand the bakers boy! 42. The October Days(1789)The king was thought to be surrounded by eviladvisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace. 43. Planting the Tree ofLiberty1790 44. Sir Edmund Burke (1790):Reflections on the Revolution inFranceThe conservative response to the French Revolution 45. How to Finance the NewGovt.? 1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790)One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period. 46. 2. Print AssignatsV Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.V Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security. 47. Depreciation of theAssignatV Whoever acquired them were entitled to certainprivileges in the purchase of church land.V The state would retire the notes as the land wassold.V They began circulating as paper currency. Government printed more INFLATION [they lost99% of their value ultimately]. Therefore, future governments paid off theircreditors with cheap money. 48. The Civil Constitutionof the Clergy July 12,1790 Jurying vs. Non-Jurying [refractory]The oath of allegiance permanently Clergy divided the Catholic population! 49. New Relations Between Church & StateV Government paid the salaries of the Frenchclergy and maintained the churches.V The church was reorganized: Parish priests elected by the districtassemblies. Bishops named by thedepartment assemblies. The pope had NOvoice in theappointment ofthe French clergy.V It transformed FrancesRoman Catholic Churchinto a branch of the state!!Pope Pius VI[1775-1799] 50. Louis XVI Accepts theConstitution& the National Assembly. 1791 51. The French Constitution of 1791:A Bourgeois GovernmentVThe king got the suspensive veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years]. He could not pass laws. His ministers were responsible for their own actions.V A permanent, elected, single chamberNational Assembly. Had the power to grant taxation.V An independent judiciary. 52. The French Constitution of1791: A Active Citizen [who pays taxesV Bourgeois Governmentamounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs.Passive Citizen. 1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise. Domestic servants were also excluded.V A newly elected LEGISLATIVEASSEMBLY.GOAL Make sure that the countrywas not turned over to the mob!turned over to the mob! 53. 83 RevolutionaryDepartmentsFebruary 26, 1790 54. The Royal FamilyY AttemptsJune, 1791Y toHans AxelHelped by the Swedish CountFleevon Fusen [Marie Antoinettes lover].Y Headed toward theLuxembourgborder.Y The King wasrecognized atVarennes, nearthe border 55. Olympe de Gouges(1745- 1793)V Women played a vitalrole in the Revolution.V But, The Declarationof the Rights of Mandid NOT extend therights andprotections ofcitizenship to women.Declaration of the Rights of Womanand of the Citizen(1791) 56. The First Coalition &The Brunswick ManifestoDuke of Brunswick if the 3, 1792) is harmed, (August Royal FamilyParis will be leveled!!17921792FRANCE--AUSTRIA17971797 PRUSSIA BRITAIN SPAIN PIEDMONTThis military crisis undermined the newLegislative Assembly. 57. French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie! V The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict. V of the officer corps had emigrated. V Many men disserted. V New recruits were enthu