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    Landscape and

    Fragmentation Analysis

    Patch Analyst Patch Analyst (Grid)

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    Crash Course in.

    an scape co ogy

    Study of landscape patterns

    landscape

    over time

    ows o energy, nu r en s, an spec esamong landscape elements

    REM429

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    Landsca e - a mosaic of atches

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    a c es can represen ..

    Cover types

    Habitat types

    Urban development

    Physiographic featuresetc

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    Hurry Back CreekLandsat 5 imagery, July 1992

    116

    W Lon 43

    N

    Current

    Creek

    Lat

    Elevation 800-2500

    Precip. 250 1000mm

    Smith Creek 130,000 ha

    Red CanyonCreek

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    Succession in a Western Juniper Community

    Grassland after fire Mountain big

    sagebrush steppe

    Stand initiation juniper

    (Phase 1)

    Open young juniper(Phase 2)

    Young mult istory juniper(Phase 3)

    Mature juniper woodland

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    From Air Photo toGIS Vegetation Layer

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    From Satellite Ima e toGIS Vegetation Layer

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    Photo interpretation Satellite data

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    a c s ze an ge ens y

    Patch richness

    Shape

    Patch evenness

    pa a s r u on n erspers on Nearest neighbor / Proximity

    Core area metrics

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    Landscape and Fragmentation

    Analysis Software

    .GUI interface

    Works with many input formats including

    ArcGIS Grids (rasters) an scape, ass an a c ana yses

    Allows the user to select output metrics

    Moving window analysis Batch processing

    http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.htm

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    ShannonsNearest neighbor

    Index

    Juxtaposition

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    Patch Size

    MPS = 8.5 haMedPS = 4.0 ha

    MPS = 30.3 haMedPS = 4.0 ha

    PSSD = 13.1 ha PSSD = 74.7 ha

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    Ed e Densit

    TE = 104 km

    = 2TE = 56 km

    ED = 0.010 m m2 .

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    Patch Richness

    =

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    Patch Sha e

    MSI = 1.93

    AWMSI = 1.74MSI = 1.26

    =MPAR = 4419 m/ha .MPAR = 1147 m/ha

    ean ape n ex s w en a pa c es are c rcu ar

    and increases as the patches become more irregular.

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    Patch Sha e b classMSI MPAR m/ha

    1.22 28461.31 627

    .

    1.52 209

    2.00 14293.04 26813 slivers

    7.77 1128

    7.25 6632

    1.44 3611.40 298

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    Patch Diversity and Evenness

    SDI = 2.16 SDI = 1.66

    SEI = 0.94PR = 12

    SEI = 0.94PR = 5

    Diversity varies with Patch Richness while

    Evenness is independent of Patch Richness.

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    Patch Diversit and Evenness

    SDI = 2.33 SDI = 2.00

    SEI = 0.94PR = 12

    SEI = 0.81PR = 12

    annon s vers y an venness n ex o re ec e

    relative distribution in area between patch types.Spatial distribution is not accounted for.

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    Patch Isolation / Fra mentation

    .MPI = 86.0

    .MPI = 49.5

    distances between patches of the same type within thelandscape.

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    Inters ersion Juxta osition Index

    . .

    measures pa c a acency. approac es

    when all patch types are equally adjacent to each other.

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    Landscapemetrics are computed for the entire

    landscape.

    Class metrics are com uted b landsca e class(e.g. cover types or habitat types)

    Patch metrics are computed for each patch. A

    e u e e e v e.

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    Shape Metrics

    Area Weighted Mean Shape IndexMean Perimeter-Area Ratio

    Mean Patch Fractal Dimension

    Area Metr icsClass Area

    Total Landscape Area

    Patch Density & Size Metrics

    Area Weighted Mean Patch Fractal

    Dimension

    .

    Mean Patch Size

    Median Patch Size

    Patch Size Coefficient of Variation

    Patch Size Standard Deviation

    Edge Metrics

    Mean Nearest Neighbor DistanceMean Proximity Index

    Interspersion Juxtaposition Index

    Mean Patch Edge

    Contrasted Weighted Edge

    annon s vers y n ex

    Shannons Evenness Index

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    Connectivit Rules

    - -

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    A circular or square moving window moves

    across e npu gr an se ec e me r cs are

    calculated for the center cell of the window

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    Shrub cover

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    Does the amount of edge between low and high cover

    areas affect habitat selection?

    Are areas within home ran es homo eneous orheterogeneous with respect to shrub cover?

    etc..

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    Total edge within a 100 m radius

    c rcu ar mov ng w n ow

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    Batch Processing Possible!!

    Batch File.--If Batch mode is selected, then FRAGSTATS will

    run the batch file specified in the Input File text box androduce out ut for all of the landsca es desi nated in the

    batch file. See Step 4 on Working with Batch Files for details

    on building a suitable batch file. If Batch mode is selected,

    below) will become inactive (grayed out in the interface)

    because these parameters will be specified uniquely for each

    nput an scape n t e atc e.

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    Further reading.Cushman S.A., K. McGarigal, M.C. Neel, 2008. Parsimony in landscape metrics:

    Strength, universality, and consistency, Ecological Indicators 8:691703.

    e eer . an . . van ar e, . o an scape e erogene y an wa er

    distribution explain aspects of elephant home range in southern Africas aridsavannas?, Journal of Arid Environments

    Grainger1 M., R. van Aarde1, and I. Whyte, 2005. Landscape heterogeneity and the

    use of space by elephants in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, African Journal

    of Ecology

    Herrera, L.P. P. Laterra, N.O. Maceira, K. D. Zelaya, and G.A. Martnez, 2009.

    Fragmentation Status of Tall-Tussock Grassland Relicts in the Flooding Pampa,

    Argentina, Rangeland Ecology and Management .

    Kong F. and N.Nakagoshi, 2006. Spatial-temporal gradient analysis of urban green

    spaces in Jinan, China, Landscape and Urban Planning.

    Arjan J. H. Meddens, Andrew T. Hudak, Jeffrey S. Evans, William A. Gould and

    Grizelle Gonzalez, 2008. Characterizing Forest Fragments in Boreal, Temperate,and Tropical Ecosystem, Ambio.