Forests, Climate Change and REDD+: A brief introduction

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Forests, Climate Change and REDD+: a brief introduction Maria Brockhaus Myanmar – February 2017

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Forests, Climate Change and REDD+: a brief introduction Maria Brockhaus Myanmar February 2017

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Strategies for climate changeMitigation and adaptation: Different objectives

Mitigation:To reduce emissions or enhance sinksAdaptation:To moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities

MITIGATIONGhG concentrationsClimate changeImpactsResponses

Global ecosystem service:Carbon sequestration.Instruments: CDM, REDD.Ecosystem-Based MitigationADAPTATION

Ecosystem-Based AdaptationLocal ecosystem services:Water regulation, provision of goods...Instruments: EBA.

Linkages between forests and adaptation are twofoldAdaptation for forestsCC affect forestsAdaptation measures needed for forestsNew challenges -> understanding impacts, adapting management

Forests for adaptationForest ecosystems contribute to social adaptationThey provide ecosystem services that contribute to risk management, and reduce the vulnerability of local communities and of the broader societyNew challenges -> forests in adaptation of sectors outside of the forest sector(Locatelli et al., 2010)

Forest Ecosystem-Based Mitigation: Examples

e.g., Afforestation & Reforestation (CDM)Increasing carbon in ecosystemstWith reforestation

Carbon in ecosystemBaselineAvoiding loss of carbon from ecosystemsConservation

Carbon in ecosystemtBaseline (deforestation)

e.g., Avoided Deforestation (REDD+)

What is REDD+? policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries UNFCCC Decision 2/CP.1311

REDD is a mechanism to create an incentive for developing countries to protect, better manage and wisely use their forest resources, thus contributing to the global fight against climate change [as well as national development??].

The plus here goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, that include the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. 6

The core idea of REDD

REDD+ architecture

A brief REDD historyEarly 1990s: Deforestation 1/5 of GHG emissions2001 - COP7: Avoided deforestation too difficult to include in CDM (+ no additionality). Only A/R2005 - COP11: 2 year consultation period for RED ; 2006 Stern report2007 - COP13: RED(D) included in Bali Action Plan; Norways Climate-Forest initiative, NOK 15 billions 2008+: FCPF (World Bank), UNREDD, other initiatives2009 - COP15: some progress for REDD+, interim financing2010: COP 16 confirms earlier decisions on REDD+; safeguards and ref.levels; REDD+ partnership 2011: COP 17: REDD part of commitment for all parties? Financing to be explored. Pilots and national policy reforms2012: COP 18 and SBSTA - not much new, a lot of bracket text for safeguards, MRV etc. - verification problem2013: COP 19 Warsaw framework, results based finance, guidance safeguards issue will need further guidance2014: SBSTA and COP 20 Safeguards guidance, JMA 2015: COP 21 and SBSTA concluded REDD+ negotiations -> national implementation arenas2016: Green Climate Fund and REDD+ results based payments, transparency


Paris Agreement, forests and REDD+First time forests are explicitly mentioned (Art 5.1)Encourages action for results based payments (e.g. REDD+) (Art 5.2) keeping forests and trees standing and sustainably managed will be crucial for global efforts to reach the 1.5 temperature goal especially in forest-rich countries avoided deforestation can provide major emission reductions contributions and REDD+ is explicitly mentioned in many (I)NDCs

(Art 5.1 states: Parties should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including forests. )(Article 5.2 links to REDD+, results based payments, joint mitigation adaptation actions and non carbon benefits - in addition, several finance announcements were made during the conference to provide more certainty over REDD+ finance)


The phased approach (adopted from Meridian Report 2009, UNFCCC) 11Phase 1:ReadinessPhase 2 PAM implementationPhase 3ResultsActivitiesInstitutional strengtheningTechnical capacity building..Governance, regulatory and economic reforms (including Land use planning, Law enforcement, Moratoria) Forest sector reformsRemoval of perverse subsidies Improved forest managementImproved commodity chains.Performance Assessment completedConsultations conductedCapacity increased Policies enactedMeasures enforcedProxies identified and monitored for changes in emissions..Quantified emission reductions, removal and enhancements (tCO2-e) Quantified co-benefits .FinancingImmediately available (readiness funds) Predictable amounts over a defined period, including countries own upfront investments Large-scale funding (note-shift from market to public funds)


Performance in REDD+ Over past decades move towards output/outcome orientation based on incentives, cash-on-delivery approaches Some problems of traditional aid : High transaction costs due to donor requirements; National ownership; The accountability problem, in which countries are held accountable to the donors instead of their citizens; low incentive to perform (ritual dance between donor/receiver)REDD+ to incentivize quantifiable results: Payments for performance Should allow for ownership over reform, integration of context, and for turning tables from aid receiver to service provider

REDD+ shifted away from market-based to public fund-based, performance element remains Risks of aidification of REDD+, but lessons available (Angelsen 2016)

Key trendsObjectives: CO2 Co-benefits Funding:Rich pay poor REDD+ countriesPolicies: PES Broad PAMsForest policiesFunding: MarketPublic (aid)Scale:National Local/projects

Challenges in national REDD+

Among others ... Coordination across sectors and administrative levels (in decentralized systems)Tenure, financing systems, benefit sharing and participationMRV systems and capacityScope, scale, permanence, leakageSovereignty and ownership over process and reform(s)Capacity and political will to address the drivers of forest carbon change (driven oftentimes by interests of powerful elites), access/availibility to data on sectorial contributions to DD, and identifying an effective policy mix

With RED(D+) being brought forward by PNG and other rainforested nations at the COP in Montreal in 2005, and the momentum this idea gained internationally, a lot of challenges for the implementation of such a mechanism (wich is basically an objective) became obvious