Foot, Ankle, & Lower Leg Anatomical Structures. Bones 28 bones in the foot Toes = phalanges (14...

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Foot, Ankle, & Lower Leg Anatomical Structures

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  • Foot, Ankle, & Lower LegAnatomical Structures

  • Bones28 bones in the footToes = phalanges (14 bones)SesamoidsMetatarsals (5 bones)Cuboid, Navicular, Cuneiforms (3)Talus, Calcaneus

  • BonesTalusCalcaneusCuboidCuneiform IntermediateCuneiform LateralCuneiform Medial NavicularMetatarsalsProximalPhalangesMiddle PhalangesDistal PhalangesSesamoidJointsDistalInter Phalangeal Joint

    ProximalInter- Phalangeal Joint

    Metatarso-Phalangeal Joint

  • Dot labelingDPMPPPMtMCICLCCuNavTalCalMMLM

  • Medial SideMetatarsals1st-4th : Top of the foot from the MP joint (last knuckle) until you feel the next bump

    Distal Phalanges tips of your toesProximal Phalanges the start of your toes

  • MedialNavicular - the prominent structure on the medial side of the foot. Cuneiform Medial: Between the proximal end of the 1st metatarsal and the navicular tuberosityMedial MalleolusBone sticking out on the inside

  • AnteriorProximal Phalanges the start of your toes Middle Phalanges middle part of your toesDistal Phalanges tips of your toesMetatarsals1st-4th : Top of the foot from the MP joint (last knuckle) until you feel the next bump

  • Cuneiform Intermediate and Lateral after the bump (the proximal end of the metatarsals) of the 2nd and 3rd toes, you will be on the Intermediate (2nd met) and Lateral (3rd met) Cuneiforms

  • Lateral5th Metatarsal: lateral side of the foot, the proximal end is the most prominent point on the lateral side.Cuboid: Palpate the styloid process of the 5th metatarsal, then move promixmally and note a groove

  • Lateral Malleolus - Bone sticking out on the lateral sideTalus - The divot anterior and inferior to lateral malleolusCalcaneus - Your heelPeroneal Tubercle: This tubercle is the most prominent landmark on the calcaneous located inferior and anterior to the lateral malleolus

  • Bones of Lower Leg

  • Arches of the FootLongitudinal ArchRuns from Calcaneus to the Metatarsal HeadsActs as a shock absorberProximal end of the Feet are very important! Transverse ArchAcross the metatarsal heads

  • Longitudinal Arch

  • LigamentsWhat does a ligament do?

    What is the name for the injury to a ligament?

  • Lateral LigamentsAnterior Talo-fibular Ligament (ATF)Calcaneofibular Ligament (CF)Posterior Talo-fibular Ligament (PTF)

  • Anterior Tibio-Fibular Ligament (Anterior Tib-Fib)Posterior Tibio-Fibular Ligament(Posterior Tib-Fib)

  • Deltoid Ligament- Made up of 4 ligaments in one!

  • Muscles of lower leg, ankle, & footGastrocnemiusO: Medial and Lateral Condyle of the FemurI: CalcaneusA: Flex knee, pf ankleSoleus (Achilles Tendon)O: Proximal fibula, middle tibiaI: CalcaneusA: pf ankle

  • Gastrocnemius


  • Muscles of Lower LegFlexor Hallucis LongusO: Middle posterior fibulaI: Distal Phalenx of great toeA: Pf and inv of ankle, flex great toe

  • Muscles of Lower LegFlexor Digitorum LongusO:Posterior TibiaI: Distal phalanges of toes 2-5A: pf and inverson of ankle, flex toes 2-5

  • Muscles of Lower LegTibialis PosteriorO: Middle posterior tibia and fibulaI: Navicular, medial cuneiform, and metatarsals 2-5A: pf and inversion of ankle

  • Muscles of Lower LegPeroneus LongusO: lateral tibia and proximal fibulaI: Proximal end of 1st metatarsal (plantar side)A: Eversion/ PFPeroneus BrevisO: middle fibulaI: 5th metatarsal A: Eversion/ PF

  • Muscles of Lower LegTibialis AnteriorO: lateral proximal tibiaI: medial cuneiform and Proximal end of 1st metatarsalA: Dorsiflexion/ inversion

  • Muscles of Lower LegExtensor Digitorum LongusO: Lateral tibia/ proximal fibulaI: phalanges of 2-5A: DF, Eversion, Extension 2-5Extensor Hallucis LongusO: Middle fibulaI: distal phalanx great toeA: DF, Inversion, Extension great toe

  • Muscles of Lower Leg Structures

  • Muscles of Lower Leg

  • What musclesInvert the foot

    Evert the footPlantarflex