Flashcard 1

Flashcard 1 Flashcard 1 Three types of RNA and their function. mRNA – makes “copy” of DNA/gene and takes to ribosome (transcription) rRNA – makes up the ribosome tRNA – brings an amino acid to the ribosome, anticodon pairs with mRNA codon (translation)


Three types of RNA and their function. mRNA – makes “copy” of DNA/gene and takes to ribosome (transcription) rRNA – makes up the ribosome tRNA – brings an amino acid to the ribosome, anticodon pairs with mRNA codon (translation). Flashcard 1. If DNA is…. CGAAGCATT What would be…. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Flashcard 1

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Three types of RNA and their


mRNA – makes “copy” of DNA/gene and takes to ribosome (transcription)

rRNA – makes up the ribosome

tRNA – brings an amino acid to the ribosome, anticodon pairs with mRNA codon (translation)

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What would be…. Complementary


DNA – A, T, C, G

RNA – A, U, C, G





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Function of … Chloroplasts



Chloroplasts – site of photosynthesis

Mitochondria – site of cellular respiration

Ribosome – site of protein synthesis

** Site means location!**

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Organic Molecules are polymers, examples include:

Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids

Made of Examples C: Monosaccharide Sugar,


P: Amino acids Meat,


L: Fatty acids and fats, oil, glycerol phosopholipids

N.A.: Nucleotides DNA and RNA

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Function of the Cell Membrane

Selectively permeable (regulates materials coming in/out of the cell)

Gives cytoplasm a boundary / shape

HOMEOSTASIS (maintaining a constant internal environment)

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Differences between Plant and Animal Cells

Plant Cells – have cell walls, chloroplasts, large vacuoles

Animal Cells – have Centrioles (used for cell division)

*BOTH ARE EUKARYOTIC! (have membrane bound organelles and a nucleus)

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The cell will lose water!!!!

Cells lose water in saltier environments

because of osmosis!!

The cell have more water and less solute!

Osmosis – diffusion of water (water moving high to low)

5% NaCl95% water

9% NaCl91% water

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FunctionsOf Enzymes

Enzymes are proteins

“Lock and Key”

Acts as a “catalyst” (speed up reactions)

Lowers activation energy

Works best at “Optimum” conditions! (this is different for each enzyme)

Heat, pH can denature an enzyme

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PhotosynthesisAnd Cellular


*Opposites of each other*

Photosynthesis Converts sunlight into

chemical energy CO2 + H20 + light

glucose + O2Respiration Converts sugars into cell

energy (ATP) C6H12O6 + O2 H2O

+ CO2 + ATP Used by ALL


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What is a gene? Found on a chromosome

Section of DNA

Code to make a protein

Controls traits!

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MitosisVs. Meiosis

Mitosis (I-PMAT-C) Makes identical copy of

cell Produces 2 daughter cells Used by somatic body

cellsMeiosis Reduces chromosome

number by half Produces 4 daughter cells Makes haploid gametes Gametes = sex cells Crossing - Over

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Recombinant DNA

also called

Genetic Engineering

How we make insulin for diabetics

GMO = genetically modified organism

DNA from two different species!

Plasmid Human gene


splice together


Recombinant DNA

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What happens in Protein Synthesis

Every three letters (codon) codes for 1 amino acid.

Making our bracelets!


transcription (mRNA)

translation (mRNA to


protein made

causes trait

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Sperm and eggs

Made by meiosis

Sex cells Haploid (contains

only one copy of each chromosome/half of diploid)

Fuse together in fertilization

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Picture of chromosomes (should have a total of 46 (23 pairs)

Shows chromosomal abnormalities (Ex. Down’s Syndrome = Trisomy 21)

Down syndrome is caused by NONDISJUNCTION

Usually follows an amniocentesis

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AsexualVs. Sexual


Sexual is better – more diversity!!!!

Asexual = one parent; makes IDENTICAL COPY!!

(budding, binary fission, regeneration)

Sexual = Two parents; genetic diversity; uses gametes (egg and sperm)

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Three Genotypes

Homozygous Dominant (AA)

Heterozygous (Aa)

Homozygous recessive (aa)

* Recessive phenotype





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Paths of Inheritance

(be able to do punnett squares)

Dominant = one allele dominant

Recessive = allele “hidden” by dominant

Codominance= both alleles equal, both show up!

Incomplete or Intermediate Dominance = Neither allele dominant, blending together (red and white make pink)

Sex-linked = on X chromosome, no male carriers

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Gel Electrophoresis Separates DNA by size (smallest goes farthest)

Identifies paternity and criminals

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Made of DNA or RNA surrounded by a

protein coat

CAN NOT be killed by anitbiotics!

Not living because they cannot reproduce outside a living organism (must have a host)

Two reproductive cycles Lytic – fast, destroys cell Lysogenic – slower, viral

genetic material hides in cell

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And Seeds

Plants:Nonvascular – no

xylem or phloem – ex. Moss

Vascular – has xylem and phloem

Gymnosperms – cones (conifers)

Angiosperms – flowers and fruits

Vascular plants have vessels, non-vascular(moss) do not

Xylem- water up the plant Phloem- food(sugar) down Flowers – reproductive

organ of angiosperm plants Male part = stamen/pollen Female part = carpel or pistil

(produce egg) Pollination = transfer of pollen

Seed = plant embryo + stored food (endosperm). Surrounded by fruit (forms ovary of plant.)

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Food Web D Secondary

consumers E C Primary Consumers O M Producers P *Arrows follow transfer for energy O S *Producers have most energy E R *Energy is lost as it move up S (10%rule)

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Parts of the Cell

Nucleus – control centerRibosome – makes proteinLysosome – digestive enzymesVacuole – storageRough ER – modifies proteinSmooth ER – detoxifies alcoholGolgi – packages and shipsCell membrane – controls what enters and leavesMitochondria – makes ATP

cellular respiration

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Taxonomic Levels:From most

general/inclusive to most specific/related

Scientific names:

Acer rubrum - red maple (genus – species)

Lynx rufus - bobcat

Domain (general / most number of species

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Scientific

name Species * Most specific/ may


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Bacteria Prokaryotic cells (no nucleus; no membrane-bound organelles) unicellular

Important for: decomposers, for Nitrogen cycle, for gene research

(recombinant DNA with plasmids)

First cells to evolve (prokaryotic and anaerobic)

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Evidence for Evolution

DNA similarity is the best evidence that organisms have a


Biochemical analysis (DNA, amino acids, proteins)

Fossil record Anatomy (if similar

bone arrangement = homologous

Development / embryology

* More in common = more related*

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Natural Selection (Darwin)

ADAPTATION – an inherited trait that helps an organism survive – they are born with it!!!!!

Variation in populations

Overpopulation of offspring

Competition for survival/mates

Survival/reproduction of best adapted / fittest.

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Levels of Organization in the BIOSPHERE

Biotic – anything living

Abiotic – non living factors – temp., soil, sun

Biosphere (all of life on earth)

Biome (ex. Desert, grassland)

Ecosystem (all abiotic and biotic factors)

Community (only biotic/living)

Population (members of one species)

Niche (total way of life for organism, its job)

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Life Processes

Every living thing does these!

Synthesis – to make (ex. protein synthesis)

Transport – to move (ex. osmosis)

Excretion – getting rid of wastes

Respiration – to make ATP from sugar (aerobic or anaerobic)

Nutrition – food getting (producer or consumer)

Growth and Development Reproduction – to make

more cells or organisms (mitosis/asexual or sexual)

Regulation – to maintain homoestasis

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Innate Behaviors

Inborn and genetic

Genetic and Inborn Automatic (reflex and

instinct) Courtship - mating Territoriality Aggression Dominance hierarchy Biological rhythms

(migration, clocks) Some communication

(need to sing in birds)

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Symbiosis Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism

Two species “living together” permanently

Mutualism (+ ,+) both benefit

Commensalism (+, 0) one isn’t helped or harmed

Parasitism (+, -) One is harmed

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DDT in our bald eagles

Mercury in our fish

Pesticides and contaminants “move up the food chain”

Chemical contaminants are stored and magnified in organisms higher up the food chain because predators accumulate pesticides in the bodies of their prey.

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Learned Behaviors Change with experience and practice.

Classical conditioning (learning by association)

Operant conditioning (trial and error learning)

Insight / reasoning Language

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Carbon CycleCarbon Cycle - Respiration

releases carbon as CO2 (carbon dioxide)

Photosynthesis removes carbon and makes sugar (C6H12O6)

Human Impact Burning Fossil fuels

releases CO2 Deforestation

increases the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere

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Environmental Problems

Overpopulation – cause of all environmental problems

Global warming – too much CO2 in atmosphere increases average global temperature ->flooding, climate change

Ozone depletion – CFC’s destroy ozone layer -> increase UV radiation exposure -> increases cancer and crop damage

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Behaviors as Adaptations

Instinctive behaviors improve survival rates.

Protective behaviors (spray, teeth bared) turn predators away and defends resources

Parental behaviors (advanced in birds and mammals) increase survival of young.

Communication and courtship allow mate recognition