Fishmeal & fish oil and its role in sustainable aquaculture

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The annual global production of fishmeal and fish oil is currently around five million tonnes of meal and one million tonnes of oil (Figure 1), except in years when the fishing in the South Pacific is disrupted by the warm waters of an El Niňo, most recently in 2010. Around 22 million tonnes of raw material is used, of which approximately 75 percent comes from whole fish and 25 percent from by-products of processing fish for human consumption (IFFO estimates).

Transcript of Fishmeal & fish oil and its role in sustainable aquaculture

  • 1.September | October 2012Fishmeal & fish oil and its role in sustainableaquaculture International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

2. FEATUREFishmeal & fish oiland its role in sustainableaquacultureby Dr Andrew Jackson, Technical Director, IFFO, UKThe annual global production ofsincemostoftheunderlyingfisheriesarenow entstheso-calledfishmealtrap.Itiscertainlyfishmeal and fish oil is currently being well managed, using the precautionary true that during the 1990s and early 2000saround five million tonnes of meal principlewithtightlysetandmonitoredquo- asaquaculturegrew,itusedmoreandmoreand one million tonnes of oiltas.Alsoincreasingly,marketsarebeingfoundfishmeal,mostlybytakingvolumesthatinthe(Figure 1), except in years when the fishing foratleastaproportionofthecatchestogo pasthadgoneintopigandpoultryfeeds.intheSouthPacificisdisruptedbythewarm fordirecthumanconsumption.However, since around 2005 aquaculturewatersofanElNio,mostrecentlyin2010.In addition there is concern that some of requiringfeedhascontinueditsstrongannualAround 22 million tonnes of raw materialthemixedtropicaltrawlfisheriesarenotbeing growth of around seven percent but theis used, of which approximately 75 percentwellmanagedandthatcatcheswilltherefore volumesoffishmealusedinaquaculturehavecomesfromwholefishand25percentfrom decreaseinthecomingyearsasthesebecome remainedsteadyataround3.2milliontonnesby-products of processing fish for human severelydepleted.Theprospectsforincreas- and those of fish oil have even reducedconsumption(IFFOestimates). ingvolumesoffisheriesby-productsdohow-to around 600,000 tonnes. (Figure 2). This ever look better as fishing becomes concen- has led the FAO to state in their recentlyThe majority of the whole fish used aretratedatfewerlandingsitesandaquacultural releasedreportontheStateofFisheriesandsmallpelagicfishsuchasanchovy,menhaden, productionalsobecomesmoreconcentrated. Aquaculture(FAO2012):Althoughthedis-sardinesandsandeelsforwhichtherearelim- This will be further encouraged by the rising cussionontheavailabilityanduseofaquafeeditedmarketsfordirecthumanconsumption.In priceoffishmealandstricterlawsagainsttheingredients often focuses on fishmeal andadditiontotheestimated11.5milliontonnes dumpingofwastematerial.Soonbalancethe fish-oil resource, considering the past trendsof small pelagic fish used in fishmeal there is productionofbothfishmealandfishoiloverand current predictions, the sustainability ofalsoanestimatedfivemilliontonnesofotherthe next few years is likely to remain about theaquaculturesectorwillprobablybecloselyfish, the majority from mixed tropical trawlwhereitisorpossiblydecreaseslightly,which linkedwiththesustainedsupplyofterrestrialfisheriesinEastAsia. willcertainlyhappeninElNioyears. animal and plant proteins, oils and carbohy- The lack of growth in the production of dratesforaquafeeds.Going forwardmarineingredientshasledsometospeculate The prospects for increasing the produc- thatthegrowthofaquaculturewouldinturn Becoming a strategic ingredienttion of fishmeal and fish oil are very limited, belimitedbytheshortageofsuchkeyingredi-This growth in aquaculture production,Figure 1. The Global Production of fishmeal and fish oil fromFigure 2. The global production of fed aquaculture1964-2011 (IFFO data)and the use in the associated diets of fishmeal and fish oil, millions of tonnes (FAO FishStat data and IFFO data and estimates)18 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012 3. FEATUREAqua News ties has risen steeply in hydrogenated margarines to being almostBest-sellingauthorsofMegatrendsunveiledasrecent years and it is exclusivelyusedinaquaculture.Withinaqua- should be limited to two to three Vietnam.Vietnamisthethirdlargestimportant to compare culturebyfarthebiggestuserwasinsalmon typewritten pages plus references. aquaculture-producing country guestspeakersattheWorldNutritionForumthe price of fishmeal feed, indeed it reached the point, in aroundIch A one-page CV of the candidate in the world. Our Novus Aqua withthealternatives.nternationalbest-sellingauthor, over 60 percent ofBIOMIN has2002, when For um 2012, the worlds Thiswed shouldbeattachedtotheproposal. Research Center is integrally con- Themostcommonly fishoilproductionwasbeingfedtosalmon. ofJohnNaisbitt,andtheDirector announced the attendanceguestor Applicant must be enrolled in a nectedtotheaquaindustryandwill used alternativeNaisbitt China Institute Doris and John Naisbitt, authorsof the to fish-The reason for this very high usage intheWan UniversityMScorPhDprogramat allowtheinterntolearnaboutandmealisthatofsoymeal. Naisbitt, will of international bestsellers suchin Tianjin, Dorissalmonfeedswasthatsalmonwerefoundto Johnststhetimeofapplication.experience aquaculture inVietnamFigure4showsthatover perform best on diets with in excess of 30delivertheirguestspeechonDay asMegatrendsandMindSet.alistity, TheselectionoftheNovusintern throughinteractionswiththeNovus thelasttwentyyearsthe percentfatandatthetimefishoilwasoneofOne of the 5thWorld NutritionBased on the research of the alreadon will be announced atAquaculture researchandoperationsteams. priceratiooffishmealto the cheapest oils on theChina Institute, JohnForuminSingapore.Naisbitt market. In addition the Wor 2013inNashville,TN.Adigitalpho- Theawardwillinclude: soymeal has less than three monthsthe finished salmon fillets a veryWith increased it also gave and Doris Naisbitt are currentlyincludtographoftheinternwillbeneeded Travel to and from Ho Chisignificantly, which is highleveloflongchainOmega-3fattyacids,until the doors open on one of working on an analysis of Chinas Intern a- fortheannouncement.MinhCity,VietnamLodgingin indicative worlds most sought-after keyeconomic,culturalandpoliticalthe of the fact specificallyEPAandDHA.(Muron Following the selection, the four- auniversitystudentdormitorythat fishmeal in the animal nutrition transformations and theirevi-events is beingDuring the last 10 years increasing impact Julianhe week internship will be scheduled inVietnam during the intern- reduced in lessthe World Nutrition on the global business landscape.industr y, critical dencehasbeenpublishedontheveryimpor- Egg Cfrom June to August, 2013.Theship $1,000 to help with areas such as grower tantrolethesetwofattyacidsplayinhuman Geldeby intern will work withThe Novus livingexpensesinVietnam feeds, but remains in health.EPAhasbeenshowntobecriticalin Africaan Aquaculture Research team on a Submit proposals by email to the more critical and the health of the cardiovascular system andTheFigure 3. The dietary inclusion of fishmeal (%) inhe currentprojectbeingcarriedoutat LorraineMagneyatNovus:Lorraine.aquaculture feeds over the period 1995-2010 (afterlessprice-sensitiveareas DHAintheproperfunctioningofthenervous by malstheNovusAquaResearchCenterin magney@novusint.comTacon et al 2011 )of hatchery and brood- system,mostnotablybrainfunction. resen Professor Simon Davies stock feeds. Fishmeal isThisgrowingawarenesswithinthemedicalfromthereforebecomingless profession and the general public has led to thefloformance, increasingfinancialreturns. total amount of ofwas for the whilst not increasing the how busy the stand a commodity and more of a strategic manygovernmentsproducingrecommendedonanOrego-Stimnotonlyimprovesthe threedays of the show. Weare in places where its unique dailyintakesforthesefattyacidsandcompa- fishmeal used, is coming through the partial ingredient usedBalanhereplacementoffishmealinthedietsofalmost nutritionalpropertiescangivethebestresults nies launching a large number of health sup-functioningofthegut,butisrenowned surethat Orego-Stimisgoing toProdu all species (Tacon et al 2011, Figure 3). This andwherepriceislesscritical.forotherinterestingproperties. playakeyroleinmaximisingper-plements, including pharmaceutical products,Prontdrive to replace fishmeal is being driven byWilliamStewart, Regional Sales formanceinallaspectsofanimal withconcentratedEPA.be reedtheriseinthepriceoffishmealandimproving Fish oil and its fatty acidsManager for Nor thAfrica, said: productionintheregion.TheimportanceplacedonEPAandDHA Aqua of nutritionalOrego-Stimbut also by concernThe launch ofknowledge, in Ashasbeenwelldocumented,duringthe in the human diet has had a number ofeventto Algeria has been fluctuating supply due to El Nio, :period1985-2005fishoilusagemovedfrom profoundeffectsonthefishoilmarket.Firstly about the a huge success More inforMation wwwer-etc. Of course the with sales@meriden-ah.comand we were overwhelmedprice of all commodi- being almost exclusively used to produce overthelasttenyearsasignificantmarkethasProviding proficient tools to achieve cost-effectiveand sustainable aquaculture practicesSUbSCRIbEwww.aquafeed.co.uk/subscribe.phpECOBIOL Aqua a highly effective single strain probiotic InternationalAquafeedispublishedsixtimesayear,bringingyouin-depthfeatures,industrynews,GUSTOR Aqua events,bookreviewsandmore. a natural growth promoterAswellasyourpersonalcopydelivereddirecttoyouraddress,subscriberstoInternational BIOMET AquaAquafeedalsoreceiveafreecopyofthean organic mineral source InternationalAquafeedDirectoryworthUK85.Formoreinformationpleasevisitourwebsite.Foracomplimentarytrialissue,pleasecontactthe rl Natuna trition Circulation&SubscriptionsManager-TutiTan-u NOREL,S.A. 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