Fingerprinting Merit Badge Mr. Blackwell – Merit Badge Counselor ASM Troop 1833.
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Fingerprinting Merit Badge
Mr. Blackwell – Merit Badge Counselor
ASM Troop 1833
Instructions • A Scout is COURTEOUS - please be respectful to me and others
• Don’t do anything until I tell you to
• Fill out your Blue Merit Badge cards
– I will sign them at the end of the class
• Write your answers in your work sheets as we go – you will be keeping them
• The history hand out is yours I will ask some of you to tell me some thing about the
history of fingerprinting
• You will be making your own fingerprint card - you will be keeping them too
• Clean up after your self - this could get messy
Applicant = your name
Merit Badge = Finger Printing
Counselor Information:• Michael Blackwell•6001 Alderdale PL•Haymarket VA 20169•703.743.9958
Blue Card Part 2Name = your name
District = Bull RunRequirement Letter & Number:• 1• 2• 3• 4 a• 5
Council = NCAC
Fingerprinting Requirements1. Give a short history of fingerprinting.
Tell the difference between civil and criminal identification.
2. Explain the difference between the automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) now used by some law enforcement agencies and the biometric fingerprint systems used to control access to places like buildings, airports, and computer rooms.
3. Do the following:a. Name the surfaces of the body where friction or papillary ridges are found.b. Name the two basic principles supporting the science of fingerprints and give a brief explanation of each
principle.c. Explain what it takes to positively identify a person using fingerprints.
4. Take a clear set of prints using ONE of the following methods: a. Make both rolled and plain impressions. Make these on an 8-by-8-inch fingerprint identification card available
from your local police department or counselor. b. Using clear adhesive tape, a pencil, and plain paper, record your own fingerprints or those of another person.
5. Show your merit badge counselor you can identify the three basic types of fingerprint patterns and their subcategories. Using your own hand, identify the types of patterns you see.
Why Do We Use Fingerprints?
• A very good way to identify people who might look alike, or who try to hide their real identity – like identical twins– DNA of identical twins is the same but not their
fingerprints• Fingerprints are permanent – they never
change• They have individuality – no 2 are the same
History (part 1) • Ancient History – fingerprints used in many cultures as identifying marks for legal
documents and contracts.• 1686 - Marcello Malpighi notes the common characteristics of spirals, loops and ridges in
fingerprints, using the newly invented microscope for his studies.• 1880 - Dr. Henry Faulds, a British surgeon and Superintendent of a Hospital in Tokyo,
published an article where he discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. Solved a murder by matching the killers prints to prints on a bottle at the scene.
• 1888 - Sir Francis Galton’s became the first to provide scientific evidence that no two fingerprints are exactly the same, and that prints remain the same throughout a person’s lifetime. He calculated that the odds of finding two identical fingerprints were 1 in 64 billion (.00011 in a 100 billion today, according to certain studies and the use of computer analysis).
• 1896 - British official Sir Edward Richard Henry developed a finger print identification system of his own, which included 1,024 primary classifications. – 1901 - Henry began training investigators to use the Henry Classification System after founding
Scotland Yard's Central Fingerprint Bureau. Within a few years, the Henry Classification System was in use around the world, and fingerprints had been established as the uniform system of identification for the future. The Henry Classification System is still in use today in English speaking countries around the globe.
History (part 2)• 1902 - Alphonse Bertillon, director of the Bureau of Identification of the Paris
Police, is responsible for the first criminal identification of a fingerprint without a known suspect.
• 1924 - The U.S. Congress acts to establish the Identification Division of the F.B.I. The National Bureau and Leavenworth are consolidated to form the basis of the F.B.I. fingerprint repository. By 1946, the F.B.I. had processed 100 million fingerprint cards; that number doubles by 1971.
• 1990s - AFIS, or Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems, begin widespread use around the country. This computerized system of storing and cross-referencing criminal fingerprint records would eventually become capable of searching millions of fingerprint files in minutes, revolutionizing law enforcement efforts.
• 1999 - The FBI phases out the use of paper fingerprint cards with their new Integrated AFIS (IAFIS) site at Clarksburg, West Virginia. IAFIS will starts with individual computerized fingerprint records for approximately 33 million criminals, while the outdated paper cards for the civil files are kept at a facility in Fairmont, West Virginia.
The Difference Between Criminal Fingerprinting and Biometric Fingerprinting
• Who are you? Criminal Identification
• Who you are. Civil Identification – grants you access to something (computers buildings etc)
Automated Fingerprint Identification System - AFIS
How Fingerprints Work
• Friction Skin is on your palms, feet and fingers
• Humans and only a few other animals like primates have friction skin
• Oils, dirt and other substances can be transferred to smooth objects to leave prints
Types of Finger Prints
60% - 65%
30% - 35%
How does an examiner determine one from the other?
• Latent print identification relies on three levels of detail1. Ridge flow (patterns) Level 1 detail – loop, whorl, or
arch (and subcategories)
2. Ridge formations (ridge Level 2 detail – endings, bifurcations, dots, or combinations)
3. Ridge path deviation (ridge Level 3 detail - structure or formation, which includes ridge width, shape, pores and other details)
POP QUIZ! Yikes! -- What Type?A B C
Your Fingerprint Card