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Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

Name of the Candidate: Name of the college:

Dr. HEMLATA DHANRAJ CHIMNE NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur. DR. D.D. KSHEERSAGAR, Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, NKP SIMS and RC, Nagpur. MD ANATOMY 2007 2007-2010

Name of the Guide: Name of the Course: Name of the Subject: Admission Year/ Academic Year

Topic: STUDY OF PALMAR DERMATOGLYPHICS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

Name of the Course: Name of the Subject: Admission Year/ Academic Year

MD ANATOMY 2007 2007-2010

Topic: STUDY OF PALMAR DERMATOGLYPHICS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

STUDY OF PALMAR DERMATOGLYPHICS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

Thesis submitted to

MAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, NASHIK

For the degree of MD in ANATOMY

MAY-2010

Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

CONTENTS_____________________________________________________________ Sr. Chapter Page No _____________________________________________________________

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Introduction Aims and Objectives Review of Literature Material and Methods Results Discussion Summary and Conclusions Bibliography Annexure Abbreviations Master sheet

001 004 005 041 061 101 112 ---------

____________________________________________________________________

Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

INTRODUCTION:Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of epidermal ridges and their configurations on the palmar region of hand and fingers and plantar region of foot and toes. The term dermatoglyphics was coined by Cummins and Midlo in 1926 and was derived from Greek words derma means skin and glyphics means carvings (Penrose LS, 1963)87. The ridge pattern depends upon the cornified layer of epidermis and dermal papillae. The typical patterns of epidermal ridges are determined since their formation in foetus. There is proliferation of cells in the lower zone of epidermis which projects into the dermis as a regularly spaced thickenings and the dermis subsequently projects upward in the epidermal hollows. This is followed by the appearance of elevations formed by them on the skin surface which gives rise to epidermal ridges. (Cummins and Midlo, 1926)24. The ridges are differentiated in their definitive forms during third and fourth month of foetal life and once formed remain permanent and never change throughout the life except in the dimension in proportion to the growth of an individual. The original ridge characteristics are not disturbed unless the skin is damaged to a depth of about one millimeter (Cummins and Midlo, 1943)25. Development of dermatoglyphic pattern is under genetic control. This is evident from the clear resemblance of dermatoglyphics among related person (Schaumann and Alter, 1976)109. There are many diseases known to be 01

Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

caused by abnormal genes. Whenever there is any abnormality in the genetic make up of parents it is inherited to the children and is reflected in dermatoglyphic pattern. (Walkar, 1964)124. Dermatoglyphics as a diagnostic aid is now well established in a number of diseases, which have a strong hereditary basis, and is employed as a method of screening abnormal anomalies (Holt SB, 1961)55. Apart from its use in predicting the diagnosis of genetic disease, dermatoglyphics is also used in forensic science for individual identification. It is also a valuable research tool in the field of Physical Anthropology, Human Genetics and Medicine. The research findings put forth by some scientists suggest that muzzle prints of animals similar to fingerprints in human being could be used as permanent method of identification of such animal to check fraud particularly in insurance matter (Tarasiuk SI et al., 1997)117. The etiology of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is multifactorial with genetics playing an important role. Taking into consideration of genetic predisposition of dermatoglyphics and coronary artery disease, the study was undertaken to find out correlation between them. So that dermatoglyphics may be helpful in the diagnosis of predisposition towards this disease at an earlier age. The knowledge of dermatoglyphic pattern in patients with CAD is an interesting matter and little information is available about this relation. Thus, with regard to the high incidence of CAD in the world, the existence of such relation might be important in the screening program for prevention of CAD. If

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Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

an individual with specific pattern of dermatoglyphic is present in CAD, then the person can be screened for prevention by controlling other risk factors in early detection program.

Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

Coronary Artery Disease is the most important cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. The knowledge of major risk factors can be useful in the prevention of CAD. Few studies has been carried out on dermatoglyphics in myocardial infarction or acquired heart disease, but in spite of extensive scanning of literature no reference was found on dermatoglyphic patterns in angiographically proven CAD. Against this background present study is carried out with following aims and objective:

1. To study the finger and palmar dermatoglyphics pattern in Coronary Artery Disease and its different Groups. 2. To establish sexual and digital differences in dermatoglyphic patterns of CAD. 3. To compare dermatoglyphic configurations of CAD with the Controls. 4. To find out whether a specific dermatoglyphic trait/ features exists in CAD patients and whether it is significant.

Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:The overview of literature is described in three parts: I. II. III. I. REVIEW OF DERMATOGLYPHICS CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE DERMATOGLYPHICS AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE REVIEW OF DERMATOGLYPHICS The literature available on the subject is reviewed under the following heads: 1. DERMATOGLYPHICS AND ITS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: Since an ancient era, one or the other way the Dermatoglyphics remains the subject of interest to various Palmist, Philosophers and Scientist. Dermatoglyphics is a scientific study of epidermal ridges and their configuration on volar aspects of hands, fingers, feet and toes. The patterned traceries of fine ridges on finger, palm and soles must have aroused interest long time ago. There are records that show acquaintance with these traceries or dermatoglyphics long ago, prior to its scientific study. The most telling fragment of this unwritten history is an aboriginal Indian carving found on rock at the edge of Kejimkoojik Lake in Nova Scotia. There are lines representing dermatoglyphics and flexion creases within the outline of a human hand. These petroglyphs depict human hand which roughly represent the dermatoglyphics and flexion creases. Such ancient stone carvings are found all over the world. The most famous of

Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

ancient Finger Print designs are carvings on the walls of a Neothilic burial passage situated on an island of Brittany Liie de Gavrinis, Its inner walls are covered with incised designs of circular patterns, spirals, arches, sinuous and straight lines occurring on various combinations. Stockis and Bridges claimed that these carvings represent dermatoglyphics. (Cummins and Midlo, 1961)26 More purposeful recording of an identifying finger prints in clay is seen in a case of Chinese seal dating back to a period of third century B.C. and its importance as personal identification was known even during that period. Dermatoglyphics patterns were also used for fortune telling in accordance with the number of loops and whorls on fingers. Mehemiah G (1684)73 presented a report before Royal Society of London describing epidermal ridge, and their arrangement of finger patterns and palm of one hand. Bidloo G (1685)14 described an account on arrangement of epidermal ridges on thumb in his book on Human Anatomy. Malphigi Marcello (1686)69, professor of Anatomy at Bologra University, noted ridges, spirals and loops in fingerprints. A layer of skin was named after him, Malphigi layer. Purkinje JE (1823)96 published his thesis describing nine fingerprint patterns. 1. Plain arch (Transverse curve), 2. Tented arch (Central long strip), 3. Loop Ulnar or Radial (Oblique strip), 4. Oblique loop (Ulnar or Radial), 5. Whorl (Almond), 6. Spiral whorl, 7. Elliptical whorl.

Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik Thesis for MD (Anatomy)

Sir Herschel WJ (1858)52 Chief Magistrate of Hooghly district in Bengal, India was the first to use finger print identification against impersonation. He started the practice of recording fingerprints to prevent the impersonation of signatures. He first used fingerprints on native contract. He made a habit of requiring palm prints and later index and middle fingers on every contract made with the locals. Faulds H (1880)34 used fingerprints for identification of criminals. He published an article in the scientific journal Nature discussing fingerprints as a means of personal identification and use of printers ink as a method of obtaining such fingerprints. He made first fingerprint identification of a greasery fingerprint left on the alcohol bottle. Mark Twains (1883)72 book Life on the