Final Centrifugal Compressor Presentation
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Product LineDischarge Pressure (bar)1001101,000Inlet Volume (m3/h)10010,000100,000 Axial (AN series)Pipeliner (PCL series)Horizontally Split (MCL, V)Blower (D series)5,000Overhung (SRL, DH series) Integrally Geared (SRL series)Vertically SplitHigh Pressure(BCL series)Vertically SplitLow / Medium Pressure( RB, VH, BCL series)1,0001,000,000
Horizontally Split CompressorsInlet Volume (m3/h)Discharge Pressure (bar)1,000,000Horizontally Split (MCL, V, RE, RF series)Installed Fleet: 700+ units
Types:MCL, 2MCL, 3MCL, DMCL, V, VS, VSS
Available Sizes:from 300 to 1400 in-line or back-to-back configuration
Discharge Pressure:up to 50 bar
Flow Range: up to 500,000 m3/h
Main Applications: used primarily for low and medium pressure applications in ethylene and fertilizer plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, LNG refrigeration, air compression, etc. Typically handling wet gas, hydrocarbon refrigerants or natural gas.
Two stage models (2MCL, VS) are used when intermediate cooling is required or when a process calls for two separate compression stages. The compression stages are in a straight-through or back-to-back arrangement.
Double flow models (DMCL) are used to compress very high flows with a limited pressure ratio. This solution, characterized by two series of identical impellers in a back-to-back configuration, allows the casing size and speed to remain within an acceptable range to couple the compressor to drivers and/or other compressor casings.
Additional side stream nozzle can be provided with the 3MCL or VSS model for special requirements such as in refrigeration applications, particularly for propane, propylene in LNG plants, or handling anhydrous ammonia.
Vertically Split Compressors1,000,0001001101,0001,00010,000100,0005,000Inlet Volume (m3/h)Discharge Pressure (bar)Barrel High Pressure (BCL/C, /D, /E)Barrel Low/Medium Pressure(RB, VH, BCL/A, /B series)Installed Fleet: 2400+ units
Types:BCL, 2BCL, 3BCL, DBCL, RB, VH
Available Sizes:from 300 up to 1,000 in-line or back-to-back configuration
Discharge Pressure:up to 300 bar (850 bar a for HP BCL/E)
Flow Range:from 300 to 80,000 m3/h (5,000 m3/h for HP BCL)
Main Applications:used primarily for high pressure applications such as ammonia, urea and methanol synthesis, refinery recycle, natural gas compression, re-injection and hazardous gases.
In-line, back-to-back or double flow configurations are available.
Materials are adapted to the process requirements. Specific materials are selected to withstand the various forms of corrosion present in sour or acid gas applications based upon extensive experience in corrosive applications.
100Discharge Pressure (bar)1101,0001,000,0001,00010,000100,000Pipeliner (PCL series)5,000Inlet Volume (m3/h)Pipeliner CompressorsInstalled Fleet: 500+ units
Basic ThermodynamicsTOSI Giampiero
Thermodynamic StateThe thermodynamic state of a gas is univocally established by the knowledge of 3 main parameters: Pressure, Specific Volume, Temperature. The 3 parameters are linked one to the other in such a way that given the value of 2 of them the third is univocally fixed too on the basis of a relation called: Equation of State For gases such as air near atmospheric conditions of pressure and temperature (ideal gases) this relation is: PV = RT where R is a constant typical of the gas (inversally proportional to the molecular weight of the gas)
Thermodynamic transformationA thermodynamic transformation is the passage of the gas from an equilibrium state to another. The concept of equilibrium what is the basis to consider reversible process is mandatory to treat mathematically the transformation. In other words the transformation, to be treated with a mathematic model, shall occur following a continuous series of equilibrium states. The simplest transformations are those where one of the 3 parameters can be kept constant: isotherms - constant T isocore - constant V isobare - constant p Another group of transformations very common are the ones representable by a law: pvk= constant called: polytrope
First law of ThermodynamicsIt is practically a formulation of the principle of energy conservation. In a thermodynamic system the balance of the sum of the initial energy and the energy coming in and the sum of the final energy and the energy coming out must be zero. Being normally involved just energies under form of W (work) and Q (heat) the first law can be also expressed like this: DH = Q - W the variation of internal energy of the system is equal to the balance between Heat and Work exchanged or done on the system. Heat and Work are forms of energy, but not functions of state Enthalpy and Internal energy are function of state, are typical of the thermodynamic State of the system and identify it, as P, V, T.
Second law of ThermodynamicsIt is someway a restriction of the first law. It stated that not all the heat can be transformed in work by a thermal machine. Part of the heat can be transformed in work and part passes to the system another time as heat. Another way to express this concept is the so called Clausius postulate: The heat cannot flow from a body at lower temperature to another at higher temperature without the addition of some other form of external energy.
Journal and Thrust Bearing - Hydrodynamic PrincipleThe oil, because of its adhesion to the shaft and its resistance to flow (viscosity) is dragged by the rotation of the shaft so as to form a wedge shaped film between the shaft and the journal bearing. This action set-up the pressure in the oil film which therefore supports the load.Thrust bearing main components
Collar Pads Base Ring Leveling plates
Thrust CollarThe Collar transmits the thrust load from the rotating shaft to the thrust shoes (pads) through the lubricant film. It can be a separate part and attached to the shaft by a key and nut or shrink fit, or it may be an integral part of the shaft. The collar surface must be flat and smooth in comparison with the film thickness (0.025 mm.) but not so smooth as to inhibit the adhesion of the lubricant to the surface. The stack-up of tolerances and misalignment has to be conservatively less than the oil film thickness (0.025 mm.) or some means of adjustment has to be incorporated.
The Pads (Thrust Shoes)The pads are loosely constrained so they are free to pivot. They have 3 basic features: the Babbitt, the body and the pivot Babbitt: high-tin material metallurgic ally bonded to the body. As with the collar the Babbitt surface must be smooth and flat in comparison with the oil film thickness. It is a soft material to trap and imbed contaminants and to protect the shaft from extensive damage in case of no lubrication and accidental contact Body: The pad body is a supporting structure which holds the Babbitt and allow freedom to pivot. Steel, or bronze or sometimes chrome-copper alloy are the selected materials. Pivot: The pivot allows the shoe to rotate and form a wedge. It may be integral with the body or be a separate insert. The pivot surface is spherical to allow 360 rolling freedom
Base ring and leveling platesBase RingThe base ring loosely hold and constrains the pads against rotating so as to allow freedom to pivot. It may have passages for the supply of oil lubricant and contain features to adapt for misalignment and tolerances in the parts. The base ring is keyed or doweled to the housing to prevent rotation of the bearing assembly. Leveling platesLeveling plates are a series of levers designed to compensate for manufacturing tolerances by distributing the load more evenly between the thrust pads. The leveling plates also compensate for minor housing deflections or misalignment between the collar and the housing supporting wall.
Half Thrust Bearing and Journal Bearing
MCL CompressorJournal and Trust Bearings
Thrust Bearing Base Ring with Pads
Journal Bearing Oil Flow Control
Journal Bearing Equipped with Thermocouple
Tilting Pad Journal Bearing
JOURNAL BEARING ASSEMBLY/DISASSEMBLY ON DRIVE END SIDE OF A BCL COMPRESSOR
Journal bearing DE
Journal Bearing Assembling
JOURNAL BEARING ASSEMBLY/DISASSEMBLY ON NO DRIVE END SIDE OF A BCL COMPRESSOR
Journal and thrust bearing NDE
Bearing Housing Assembling
THRUST BEARING ASSEMBLY/DISASSEMBLY ON NO DRIVE END SIDE OF A BCL COMPRESSOR
Trust Bearing Housing Handling
External Trust Berging Base withPads Assembling
MCL Compressor End Journal and Trust Bearing Housing
MCL Compressor Journal and Trust Bearings
Trust Collar Assembling Tool
Thrust Collar Assembling
Thrust Collar Assembly NDE
Coupling Hub Assembling Tool
Coupling Hub Assembly
DIAPHRAGM BUNDLE ASSEMBLING FOR A BCL COMPRESSOR
False seals for rotor centering
Rotor axial locking device
Rotor axial locking device
Barrel Type Compressor Bundle Assembly
Bundle Assembly Tools
End Head Extraction 1 - Shear Rings
End Head Extraction 2 - Ring
End Head Extraction 3 - Sectors
End Head Extraction - Tool Application
End Head Extraction -
End Head Extraction End Head with First Stage IGV