Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

9
Photo: Dan Quinn, Horticulture Innovation Lab Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation Steven Franzel, Head Rural Advisory Services, ICRAF & Brent Simpson, Senior Ag. Officer, FAO/Michigan State Univ. June 4, 2015 MEAS Symposium

Transcript of Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

Page 1: Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

Phot

o: D

an Q

uinn

, Hor

ticul

ture

Inno

vatio

n La

b

Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

Steven Franzel, Head Rural Advisory Services, ICRAF & Brent Simpson, Senior Ag. Officer, FAO/Michigan State Univ.

June 4, 2015MEAS Symposium

Page 2: Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

What did we do and why?

• Farmer to farmer extension (F2FE) is widely used: In Malawi, 2/3 of development organizations use it and in Cameroon, 1/3.• But almost nothing available on lessons learned

across countries or organizations. • Our objective was to assess

– How organizations select, train, and reward farmer trainers– Organizations’ and farmers’ views on effectiveness – Ways to enhance effectiveness and sustainability

• We conducted surveys of organizations using F2FE (26-30/country) in Cameroon, Kenya and Malawi) and farmer trainers (100-200/country)

Page 3: Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

Key finding no. 1: Organizations’ views on benefits of F2FE

Percentages of organizations

Page 4: Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

Key finding no. 2: Motivations for farmers to become farmer trainers: Cameroon, Kenya and Malawi

Motivations For becoming a trainer

% scoring motivation as importantProject material benefits

Knowledge

Social status/ networkingHelping others

Income from extension activities

Page 5: Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

Motivations for farmers to become and remain farmer trainers: Cameroon, Kenya and Malawi

Motivations For becoming a trainer For remaining a trainers

% scoring motivation as importantProject material benefits 22Gain knowledge 61Social status and networking 17Helping others 56Income from extension activities 14

Page 6: Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

Motivations for farmers to become and remain farmer trainers: Cameroon, Kenya and Malawi

Motivations For becoming a trainer For remaining a trainers

% scoring motivation as importantProject material benefits 22 22Gain knowledge 61 49Social status and networking 17 23Helping others 56 62Income from extension activities 14 37

Page 7: Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

Key finding no. 2: farmer trainers’ motivations

• Motivations vary among farmers and change over time. • Programs need to identify lead farmers’ motivations and

provide low-cost incentives:

Motivation Incentives

Altruism, social status Contests, certificates, badges, community recognition

Knowledge Training, study tours, training materials

Income-generating activities Links to buyers of inputs and services

Page 8: Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

Key finding no. 3: Gender imbalance in rural advisory services: Farmer to farmer extension programs can help!

• Key problem: Women lack access to advisory services and proportion of women extension staff is low.

• Farmer-to-farmer extension programs are an underutilized instrument in addressing the gender imbalance in extension.

Figure 1. Proportion of staff and lead farmers who are women

Min. of Agriculture, Malawi

EADD Project, Uganda

28 extension organizations, Kenya

0 10 20 30 40 50

40

33

43

21

5

33

% staff who are women% farmer trainers who are women

Page 9: Farmer-to-farmer extension: The quiet transformation

Implications for improving EAS

• F2FE is an important (but neglected!) approach for improving extension effectiveness.

• F2FE is not a substitute for extension staff, rather it is a complement

• Understanding farmers’ motivations, and finding low cost ways to motivate them, is a key to improving effectiveness

• F2FE can be used to increase numbers of women providing extension services, but proactive measures needed, in recruiting and training women.