Expressionism through Cubism

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  • 1.God is dead! -Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882German Expressionism through Cubism

2. La belle poque gives rise to society of great experimentation as seen in many fin de sicle artists Nihilism characterizes mal de sicle (existence is senseless) Industrialization of 19th century becomes international capitalism National pride reaches new levels 3. Art becomes a tool to define personal and national identity, personal becomes extension of the national Purity becomes a primary concern German Expressionism will be visual transformation of Nietzsches pronouncement 4. Schools of Modern Art Post-Impressionism The reaction to Impressionism and the influence of PostImpressionism were not limited to painting. Modern sculptors, led by Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), waged a campaign against the idealism of the French Academic style. Rodins sculpture, The Age of Bronze, demonstrates a clear observation from nature infused of expressionism. Auguste Rodin, The Age of Bronze, 1876. Bronze, 71 x 28. The Minneapolis Museum of Art. 5. Donatello, David, 1440. Bronze, 62.2. Borgello Museum, Florence. Stylistically, Rodin looked to sculpture of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance masters of Donatello and Michelangelo.Michelangelo Buonarroti, David, 15011504. Marble, approx. 14. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. 6. Schools of Modern Art Post-Impressionism Rodins sculpture, The Age of Bronze, demonstrates clear observation from nature and the raw emotions of expressionism. Rodin directly quotes the Renaissance masters Dying Slave. Auguste Rodin, The Age of Bronze, 1876. Bronze, 71 x 28. The Minneapolis Museum of Art.Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Dying Slave, 15131516. Marble, 76. Louvre, Paris. 7. Schools of Modern Art Post-Impressionism Rodin is best known for his ability to model the human form with realism. His Burghers of Calais demonstrates his ability to fuse expressionist emotion within three-dimensional media.Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais, modeled 1884 95; this bronze cast 1985. Bronze 82 1/2. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC. 8. Schools of Modern Art Post-Impressionism Burghers has a psychological content that is raw and unprecedented. The artists ability to translate the terror and emotions felt by the six figures makes it an example of expressionist sculpture and contributes to its success. Notice the elongated limbs, tattered clothing, disheveled condition of the bodies with sunken cheeks and uncoiffed hair, coupled with the animation of the figures. This is how Rodin expresses the emotion of the piece and communicates that emotion to the viewer.Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais, modeled 1884 95; this bronze cast 1985. Bronze 82 1/2. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC. 9. The Modern Condition La belle poque (1890-1914), which gave rise to a society of great experimentation (as seen in many of the fin de sicle artists), fades. Its vibrant spirit is replaced by the mal de sicle (existence is senseless), a nihilism with reverberating effects. God is dead! In 1882, German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, declares God dead. Although he is not very well known at the time, his pronouncement would characterize the coming mood of the 20th century. Industrialization of 19th century fuels international capitalism. National pride reaches new levels leading to world war. Artists reject the representational convention and pictorial illusionism of artistic tradition in favor of abstraction and spatial distortion. 10. Schools of Modern Art Donatello au milieu des fauves! -Louis Vauxcelles, 1905 Exhibited at the 1905 Salon d'Automne, also known as the Fauve Salon. It is here, with this work, that the movement gets its name and Matisse is recognized as the leader of the Fauves.Henri Matisse, Woman with a Hat, 1905. Oil on canvas, 31 x 23 . San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. 11. William Bouguereau, Nymphs and Satyr, 1873. Oil on canvas, 100 x 71. The Clark Art Institute.Gustave Moreau, The Apparition, c. 1876. Oil on canvas; 21 x 171/2. Louvre, Paris. Fig. 25.6 12. Schools of Modern Art Fauvism (1900-1910) Fauvism is born out of the spirit of experimentation within la belle poque. Movement gets name from quote (insult really). Artists include: Henri Matisse (1869-1954) considered to be the leader of the Fauves, Andr Derain (1880-1954), Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958), Georges Rouault (1871-1958), and Raol Dufy (1877-1953). As a style of painting, Fauvism begins roughly around 1900 and continued after 1910. As a movement, however, Fauvism experienced its highpoint from 1904-1908. Expressed in two and three dimensional media.Henri Matisse, Reclining Nude I, 1906-1907. Bronze, 13 x 19 x 11 . ( In background, Blue Nude, 1907. Oil on canvas, 36 x 56 1/8.) Museum of Art Modern Art. 13. Schools of Modern Art Fauvism (1900-1910) Heavily influenced by Gauguin, the Symbolists, and Nabis group. Fuaves reclaim Impressionist joyous embrace of nature and combine it with the PostImpressionist investment in color contrasts and emotionality. Fauves emancipate color from role in describing reality.Henri Matisse, Luxe, Calme, et Volupt, (Luxury, Calm, and Delight),1904-05. Oil on canvas, 37x46. Muse National d'Art Moderne. 14. Schools of Modern ArtPaul Czanne, Battle of Love, 1880. Oil on canvas 14 7/8 x 18 . National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Inspired by Baudelaires Invitation to Voyage, 1857. Combines abstraction of Signac with the figural organization of Cezanne. Presents modern, radical re-interpretation of bathers/landscape nude tradition. Scenes are from the Henri Matisse, Luxe, Calme, imagination. et Volupt, (Luxury, Calm, and Delight),1904-05. Oil on canvas, 37x46. Muse National d'Art Moderne. 15. Henri Matisse, Le Bonheur de vivre (The Joy of Life), 1905-1906. Oil on canvas, 58 x 7 9 16. Schools of Modern Art Fauvism (1900-1910) In 1908, Matisse writes Notes of a Painter Like Whistler before him, Matisse declares painting to be autonomous creation, free of serving any moral or symbolic ends. Argues color is arbitrary.Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse/The Green Line (or Stripe), 1905. Oil and tempera on canvas, 15 7/8 x 12 7/8. Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen. 17. Schools of Modern Art Fauvism (1900-1910) Search for immediacy and clarity. Desire for personal authenticity keeps cohesive movement from forming. Extend boundaries of representation. Influenced by non-Western cultures, esp. African. 18. Schools of Modern Art Fauvism (1900-1910) African interest and influence on Matisse. Demonstrates Matisses fluidity of line, arbitrary use of color, and experimentation with traditional subject matter. Causes sensation at 1913 Armory Show. Copies burned in effigy at the Armory Show in Chicago in 1913.Henri Matisse, Blue Nude. (Souvenir de Biskra), 1907. oil on canvas, 36 x 56 1/8. Baltimore Museum of Art. 19. Schools of Modern Art German Expressionism (Early 20th century) German Expressionism should be thought of as the visual transformation of Nietzsches statement, God is dead! It is an explicit movement centered in Northern Europe prevalent in the early decades of 20th century. The roots of German Expressionism lie in French and German Romanticism (in the work Eugne Delacroix, The Lion Hunt, of artists Delacroix and Friedrich) which placed an emphasis on the exploration of an 1861. Oil on canvas, 30 1/8 x 38 . Art Institute of Chicago. extremely personal aesthetic. German Expressionism has a strong relationship to Fauvism in its eccentric use of color and van Gogh for its emotionally charged employment of color. German Expressionism produces two schools of art: Die Brcke The Bridge Der Blaue Reiter The Blue RiderCasper David Friedrich, Monk by the Both schools view modernity-industrialized society Sea,, 1808. Oil on canvas 43.31" x with skepticism, this is often subject of their work. 67.52". Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin. 20. Schools of Modern Art German Expressionism (Early 20th century) Die Brcke The Bridge Formed in Dresden in 1905, disbands in 1913. First manifestation of Expressionism in German art. Founding members include Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (18801938), Erich Heckel (1883-1970), and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884-1976), and Fritz Bleyl (1880-1966). Major contribution to modern art was its revival of printmaking. Often compared to Fauvism for its use of color, shared interest in primitivist art, crude drawing technique, and opposition to total abstraction. 21. Schools of Modern Art German Expressionism (Early 20th century) Artist , Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (18801938) was one of the founding members of Die Brcke . Kirchner worked in many media including paint, print, and sculpture. Kirchner frequently reworked his canvases. He drew inspiration from Oceanic and African art as well as early Renaissance masters, most especially the prints of Albrecht Drer (1471-1528). German Expressionist artists sought to continue their heritage and thus looked for inspiration in the German Gothic and Renaissance roots.Portrait of Henry van de Velde, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1917; woodcut, 19 x 15 . Private Collection.Albrecht Drer, The Four Horseman of the Apocalypse, 1498. Woodcut; 15 3/8 x 11 11/16. Harvard University Art Museum. 22. Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873. Oil on canvas, 31 x 23 . Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Kirchner approached similar subject matter in a different way. He did not celebrate modernity and industrialization blindly as the Impressionists once did. He was skeptical. He communicates that skepticism in color choice and angularity of composition. Angularity produces tension in the work and the viewer. Angularity inherited from Gothic roots.Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Berlin, 1913. Oil on canvas, 47 1/2 x 35 7/8. Museum of Modern Art, NYC. 23. Schools of Modern Art Die Brcke (1905-1913) Inspired by contemporary urban life. Sketched from life and reworked in numerous drawings in studio. Paint