Examen talk

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I gave this talk for my examen de synthese in 2010 as a part of my PhD.

Transcript of Examen talk

  • 1. Examen de synthse Steven Hamblin

2. I h ave a sto r y to te l l . . . 3. Or rath er, this guy doe s. 4. Ox y to ci n 5. Social Behavior Net work 6. Ch apte r 1: Ox ytoc in 7. C h apte r 2: S o c ia l Beh av io u r Net wo r k 8. and each area contains sex steroid receptors that areFig. 1. The social behavior network as originally suggested for mammals (schematics modified from Newman, 1999). The network is comprised of six nodesthe extended medial amygdala (i.e., the medial amygdala andIncr in all v from bi fish, a section as a co macula demons distinct network finding (1999) patterns Our importa the plai the firs nections that the vertebra the voc for syst possible exposed 9. Ang olan blue wax billViolet-eared waxbill Melba nchSpice nch Zebra Finch 10. C h apte r 3: T h e Ze b ra Fi nch 11. Ripening of grass seedsForaging ocksBreeding ocks 12. 4: e r ic le pt ha rt C ta ge ar et Th 13. 5). and No References l., J. Hum. Evol. 48, 3 (200 (2002). a 8 . dErrico et ce 295, 127S. A 738 (2 16. S. Wurz, ol. Sci. 34, 1 5). all, J. Archae 20, 98 (198 17. G. S. McC 008). 1. F rch. Oceania al., Scien el, A y 50, 555 (2 d et 905 (2007). 8. M. Hanck Archaeometr . Henshilwoo 1 nski, 2. C. S re 449, ). rting bb, M. Doma n et al., Natu 9, 453 (2000 ble as suppo 19. J. A. We C. W. Marea Hum. Evol. 3 ds are availa 3. oks, J. and metho rty, A. S. Bro vol. 42, 211 20. Materials ne. 4. S. McBrea y, J. Hum. E art Science Onli (1997). material on yon, S. McBre Sci. 24, 749 5. C. A. Tr 006). , J. Archaeol. lcin 007). r. 30, 703 (2 21. A. W. Pe ). (2002). l. 53, 406 (2 . Phys. Geog , 329 (2005 . Evo Prog bard, J. Hum Rock Eng. 38 (1988). . A. Goudie, 22 Mech. 2, 235 979). 6. M. Lom r et al., Rock orld Prehist. 31 (2001). erica 7, 1 (1 23. M. Fene . Evol. 41, 6 rn North Am D. Clark, J. W ste 7. J. l., J. Hum dern an, Arch. Ea 823 (2006). rgence of Mo shilwood et a 24. E. Callah airbrain, eol. Sci. 33, 8. C. S. Hen z, in The Eme J. Archa ars, Ed. G. Loren a, Mell , K. eometry, A. F 25. J. J. She ralian Archa rspective, P. . H. Ambrose 9. S al Pe Press, 3. erries, in Aust Archaeologic ational Univ. 90), pp. 33 26. A. I. R. H Humans: An , (Australian N dinburgh, 19 Eds. , Culture 53. niv. Press, E S. O'Conner, sh, in Society ), pp. 2352 (Edinburgh U Press, wn, W. P. Na stralia, 2009 . Bro . of g (Academic Canberra, Au . Merrick, F. H ilds, Ed. (Univ escence Datin min S. T. Ch 10. H. V ken, Thermolu gy in Africa, Anthropology, 27. M. J. Ait 983). and Technolo aeology and 5). Stud. 1, 43 (1 seum of Arch London, 198 Aust. Aborig. nsylvania Mu 44. Pen hite, p. 29 3 (1985). niken, J. P. W PA, 1994), p aeol. Rev. 3, ). 28. J. J. Flen Philadelphia, , 733 (2008 arris, Afr. Arch nce 322 ). , J. W. K. H 25 (2004). s et al., Scie , 730 (2009 29. J. D. Clark ar et al., Science 304, 7 t 11. Z. Jacob aeol. Sci. 36 search staff a Arch nb al Science Re olo et al., J. rehistory and . N. Goren-I 30 for Soci ican P r their 12. C. Trib Southern Afr k the Institute roject staff fo , Rotterdam, 31. We than P. Volman, in Archaeology P Ed. (Balkema lein, 13. T. Mossel Bay ment, R. G. K ASU and the Paleoenviron 69220. 1984), pp. 1 008). Netherlands, . 35, 614 (2 Archaeol. Sci ckay, 14. A. J. Ma(grant ; and t vi e Family Trust .R.H. was pro .M.); the Hyd C.W support to A.I netis Additional rpool Geomag Origins, ASU. iversity of Live the Un by the Faculty by M. Hill at ere provided uncil nd funds w n Research Co Laboratory, a and Australia NSW arie Curie Medicine at U nded via a M 008-2 M.C.M. was fu ip (PIOF-GA-2 DP0877603. oing fellowsh Outg Internationall 59/D line Materia pporting On /cgi/content/full/325/5942/8 Su rg .sciencemag.o www Methods Materials and SOM Text 7 Figs. S1 to S S8 Tables S1 to References09 d 10 July 20 009; accepte 15 April 2 nce.1175028 10.1126/scieto live as sin e preference regulate th in between or somewhere limited large groups, reflects n. This likely e requiremen unknow the spac tly because par izes may be ical group s species-typ tal setting in experimen accommodate use the behavioral d gsbury beca A. Kin importantly, isolate in belik, Marcy difficult to tt, David Ka sociality is ost wholly James D. Kla ause roden en size are alm napeptide E. Schrock, instance, bec a studies. For roups of a giv no odson,* Sar o tend to dif ferences for g ygia guttata), blockade of James L. Go iliar differ in sociality als ntal care, ence pre ms that influ roups and fam e: Taeniop s of pare ural mechanis ous zebra finch (Estrildida t with large g ate ne e spen stem, pattern y central sy Proxim uced b cology that ari uced tim cts were prod e highly greg s pects of behavior and e nificantly red e s echanism unknown. In th xytocin (OT) antagonist sig cial contact. Opposing eff to be female-specific. Acro endocrine m tive o o d s an neural and tributions in ffects appeare time spent in receptors by compara ependent of ). Most drug e h nonapeptide receptor dis of OT ers ind ciality (3, 4), the g with so social partn tes wit fusions into avian homolo up size correla duced by OT antagonist in esotocin (MT, ro y infusions of m s re ecies-typical g hylogeneticall na Univer ch species, sp in female zebra finches wa iality by MT represents a p did fin Biology, India ons. ti of five estril Department n of soc sociality maternal func septum, and se that titratio USA. bonding and o , the lateral be area. We prop , re- IN 47405 ic roles in pair dence should transmission not a control female-specif f OTs m but m correspon isease o septu behavior, d owever, *To who @indiana.edu the evolution reproductive amework for fense (1, 2). H jlgoodso deep fr and de eciesexploitation, sociality and y modal sp e defined b s that titrate nent sourc ociality, as l mechanism core compo ra p size, is a ts the neu typical grou trongly affec mag.org n that s l organizatio ww.science w of socia CIENCE OL 325 S T 2009 V 14 AUGUSeceptors apeptide R in and Non Mesotoc g Behavior id Flockin ote Estrild Prom -O x y t o c i n r Ne t wo r k a l Be h av i o u -S o c i b ra n ch e s -ZeS862 14. containing dozens or hundreds of colonially strongly conserved across the vertebrate classes, breeding pairs (5). This family includes the zebra as are their central and hypophyseal projections finch (Taeniopygia guttata), a socially tractable (3, 17). In amniotes, OT-like peptide neurons are largely restricted to the hypothalamus, whereas laboratory songbird (6). In mammals, the neuropeptides arginine homologous cell groups lie within the preoptic , (VP) and oxytocin (OT) influence area of anamniotes (3). vasopressin Focal bird has been inject ed with saline VT and VP cell groups numerous behavioral processes, includingcin antag onist. mesot ocin, or an oxyto are found in these same areas, although tetrapods parental care, anxiety, and monogamous pair also produce VT and VP in numerous extrahypobonding (711). Behavior may also be influenced thalamic parts of the brain, including the medial in a sex-specific manner [e.g., pair bonding (12)] extended amygdala (bed nucleus of the striaFam ilia rUnfamiliarLarge (fam iliar)Small (familiar)Fig. 1. Choice apparatus design. A 1-m-wide testing cage was subdivided into zones by seven perches (indicated by thin lines). Subjects were considered to be within close proximity when they were within 6 cm of a stimulus cage (corresponding to the perches closest to the sides). For novelfamiliar choice tests (A), the two stimulus cages contained either five familiar cagemates or five unfamiliar individuals (all of the same sex). For sociality tests (B), the stimulus cages contained either 2 or 10 same-sex conspecifics. Sides were counterbalanced across subjects. Tests were 5 min, and subject location was recorded at 15-s intervals.familiar cagem conspecifics (s lished behavi injections of th desGlyNH2,d vasotocin [OT saline, and, on this experimen guide cannulae using intracere [250 ng; OTA the basis of pr tests were con design, and tes As predict OTA significa that subjects sp cagemates (Fi nounced in fe achieved only [F1,1,21 = 3.83 analysis of va infusions exe sex-specific e F1,1,20 = 4.019 administration to increase the (Fig. 2C; ma 3.900, P < 0.05 the main effec appears to com and MT. Desp fects were obs 15. familiar choice tests (A), the two stimulus cages contained ei ained unfamiliar individuals (all of the same sex). For sociality tests (B), the stimulus cages cont 5 min, either 2 or 10 same-sex conspecifics. Sides were counterbalanced across subjects. Tests were and subject location was recorded at 15-s intervals.appears to c and MT. D fects were for the per specifics (f We test promotes s above, but, familiar co group of tw the testing conspecific first two e saline subc of either n Fig. 2. Zebra finches were tested in a novel-familiar choice paradigm (as in Fig. 1A) after administra Females shown in green and purple, respectively. (A) tions conspecific Males OTA of OTA and nonapeptides. Females and males are stimulus an proximity to familiar same-sex delivered subcutaneously significantly reduced time spent in close ately adjac 11 females). Significant pairwise cagemates (*P < 0.05, main effect of treatment; n = 12 males, of 5 days by different letters above the bars. Data plotted are mean T SE. (B) comparisons within a sex are indicated ment inter cerebroventricular infusions of OTA, although a significant sex by A similar result is observed after intra ments, wit le pound symbol indicates P < 0.05; n = 11 males, 11 females). (C) treatment interaction is obtained (sing , female sub ral infusions of MT and VT differentially influence time spent with familiar cagemates (*P < 0.05 Cent group (F1, effect of treatment; n = 11 males, 11 females). Corresponding data for time spent in close proximity main 4.871, P < l conspecifics is shown in fig. S1. to novePer iph era lCen tra lCe nt ra lCo nc lusio n? Mes ot oc in in crea se s fe m ale pref eren ce fo r fam ili ar www.sciencemag.org