Eu Horticultural Imports

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    EU

    Hor t i cu l t u ra l

    Impo r t s

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    Highlights: EU Imports from Third Countries

    Between 1996 and 2000, the dollar appreciated by 17 percent againstthe ECU, making EU exports that much more competitive compared toimports.

    On the import side, six product categories accounted for over 90 percentof the decline in value: cassava, bananas, fresh vegetables, soy sauce,water and canned fruits.

    Imports of certain selected items reflected a price inelasticity of demand.Total imports values declined despite lower prices, and in some caseshigher imported volumes. Import volumes of U.S. almonds increasedand walnuts remained fairly stable despite the appreciation of the dollar,due to lower U.S. domestic prices.

    The total import value of raisins, the principal imported dried fruit,

    likewise reflected an inelastic demand. Total volumes importedremained fairly constant due to precipitous devaluation of the TurkishLira against the ECU. U.S. volumes fell off due to strong prices and theappreciating dollar.

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    EU Total Agricultural Trade With Third Countries

    Source World Trade Atlas

    1996 1997 1998 1999 200055

    60

    65

    70

    75

    80

    Billion $

    Imports from Third Countries

    Exports to Third Countries

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    The EU Remains a Net Importer from Third Countries

    of Horticultural Products, but the Gap Narrows

    Source: EuroStat and the World Trade Atlas1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

    10

    12

    14

    16

    18

    20

    Billion $

    Total Horticultural Exports

    Total Horticultural Imports

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    Tropical Fruits, Nuts and Off Season Produce

    Account for over 50 percent of EU's Negative Trade Position

    Source: Eurostat and the World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    Billion $

    Apples, Pears

    Fresh Citrus

    Dried Fruit

    Wine

    Juice

    Tree Nuts

    Bananas

    EU Imports From Third Countries

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    EU Imports of Selected Tree Nuts: By Value, By Country

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    200,000

    400,000

    600,000

    800,000

    1,000,000

    1000 U.S. $

    United States Turkey Iran

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    EU Third Country Imports of Leading Tree Nuts

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    50,000

    100,000

    150,000

    Metric Tons

    Hazelnuts Almonds Pistachios Walnuts

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    EU Import Unit Values of Primary Suppliers

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20001,000

    2,000

    3,000

    4,000

    5,000

    6,000

    7,000

    $/ton

    Almond

    US

    Hazelnuts

    Turkey

    Walnut

    US

    Pistachio

    Iran

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    EU Fruit and Vegetable Juice Imports

    Market Share of Leading Third Country Suppliers

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    46%

    13%

    8%

    9%

    24%

    1993

    46.7%

    3.5%

    9.8%

    8.3% 31.6%

    2000

    Brazil Israel United States Poland Other

    $1.42 Billion $1.19 Billion

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    EU Fruit and Vegetable Juice Imports

    Market Share by Type

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    71%

    29%

    1993

    73.5%

    26.5%

    2000

    Citrus Other

    $1.42 Billion $1.19 Billion

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    EU Imports of Fruit and Vegetable Juices: By Value, By Country

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    150,000

    300,000

    450,000

    600,000

    750,000

    900,000

    1000 U.S. $

    Brazil Other Israel United States Poland

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    EU Third Country Imports of Leading Fruit and Vegetable Juices

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1,000

    1,200

    Million U.S. $

    Citrus Apple Other Pineapple

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    EU Third Country Imports of Non Citrus Fruit and Vegetable Juices

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    Million U.S. $

    Apple Pineapple Other Mixtures Grape juice

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    EU Third Country Imports of RaisinsMarket Share by Value

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1993 2000

    Turkey 59%Turkey 42%

    U.S. 24%

    U.S. 26%

    Australia

    2%

    Australia

    13%

    Other

    15%Other

    19%

    $283 Million$307 Million

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    EU Third Country Imports of RaisinsImport Unit Values

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000800

    1,000

    1,200

    1,400

    1,600

    1,800

    2,000

    U.S. $/Ton

    US Turkey Australia

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    EU Raisin Imports from the United States

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 200020

    25

    30

    1,200

    1,400

    1,600

    1,800

    2,000

    Market Share U.S. $/Ton

    Market Share Price

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    EU Raisin Imports from Turkey

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 200020

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    50

    55

    60

    65

    1,000

    1,100

    1,200

    1,300

    1,400

    1,500

    Market Share U.S. $/Ton

    Market Share Price

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    EU Wine Imports by Tariff Classification

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    Million of Hectoliters

    Table and Fortified WineIn Bottles 2 Liters or less

    Table and Fortified WineIn Bottles of more than 2 Liters

    Sparkling Wine

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    EU Wine Imports by Country

    Source : World Trade Atlas

    1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    Million U.S. $

    Australia United States Chile South Africa

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    Imports of Wine by Principal EU Countries

    Table and Fortified Wine in containers 2 liters or Less

    Source: World Trade Atlas

    1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1,000

    Millions U.S. $

    UK Netherlands Germany Sweden

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    EU Wine Imports: Third Country Market Share

    Imports By Tariff Classification

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    Percent

    Sparkling Wine

    Table and Fortified Wine in containers

    holding more than 2 Liters

    Table and Fortified Wine in containers

    holding 2 Liters or less

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    EU Horticultural Exports

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    Highlights: EU Exports to Third Countries

    Between 1996 and 2000, the dollar appreciated by 17 percent againstthe ECU, making EU exports that much more competitive compared to

    imports.

    On the export side three categories accounted for over one third of thenet gain in value: beverages, consisting of wine, beer and water; cannedvegetables, consisting primarily of tomatoes, artichokes and olives; andenzymes.

    EU exports of beverages drove the total growth figure. Between 1993and 2000 the value of total exports grew by nearly 24 percent while thegrowth in the value of wine exceed 50 percent. Wine is a substantialcomponent of EU horticultural exports, accounting for 23 percent ofoverall exports in 1993 and nearly 28 percent in 2000. Beer grew by 31percent during the 1993-2000 period, accounting for 9.9 percent of

    horticultural exports in 1993 and10.4 percent in 2000.Since 1993, the value of the EU's fresh citrus exports declined by 3percent . Export volumes, however, increased by 23 percent, due to an84-percent increase in shipments of mandarins (clementines). Theaverage export price dropped by 21 percent during this period. Orangeshipments were down to Russia, Poland, Switzerland and

    Czechoslovakia but to some extent were replaced by mandarins.Mandarin exports to Poland increased fro 69,000 tons to 137,000 tons

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    Top Five Horticultural Categories Account for 60 Percent of EU Exports

    To Third Countries

    Source: Eurostat and the World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    Billion $

    Other Beverages Vegetables, Fresh, Frozen, Dried

    Fruits, Fresh Frozen Live Plants Olives and Artichokes

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    Wine is the Primary Export Item included in the Beverage Category

    Source: EuroStat and the World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    2

    4

    6

    8

    Billion $

    Wine Beer Water Other

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    Wine is the Largest Single EU Export Item and Accounts

    for about 25 percent of Total Horticultural Export Value

    Source: EuroStat and the World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    5

    10

    15

    20

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    Billion $ Wine Percentage

    Horticultural

    Export Value

    Wine as a

    Percent of Total

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    EU Wine Exports to Principal Third Country Markets

    Table and Fortified Wine in containers holding 2 Liters or less

    Source: World Trade Atlas

    1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    1.2

    1.4

    Billions U.S. $

    US Other Japan Switzerland Canada

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    EU Fresh Citrus Trade with Third Countries

    Source: EuroStat and the World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

    400

    600

    800

    1,000

    1,200

    1,400

    Million U.S. $

    Total Fresh Citrus Export Value Total Fresh Citrus Import Value

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    EU Fresh Citrus Exports to Third Countries

    and Mandarins as a Percent of Total Fresh Citrus Exports

    Source: Eurostat and the World Trade Atlas1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

    300

    350

    400

    450

    500

    550

    600

    650

    30

    35

    40

    45

    50

    55

    Million U.S. $ Percent

    Total Fresh Citrus Export Value Mandarins as a Percent of Total

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    EU Horticultural Trade With the

    United States

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    Highlights: EU Trade with the United States

    In 1999, the EU became a net exporter of agricultural products to the United Statesfor the first time. Several factors were responsible this development:. The

    appreciation of the dollar against the ECU helped make U.S. exports moreexpensive, while making EU commodities more competitive. U.S. bulk commodityshipments to the EU declined due to bio-tech restrictions.

    Within the horticultural sector, the EU has run a net surplus for some time, due tobeverage exports, which account for two thirds of the EU's shipments to the UnitedStates.

    EU horticultural imports from the United States leveled off in 1996, due to a drop in

    the exports of tree nuts and citrus fruit. Several factors account for this change.Remarkably, the ECU actually appreciated against the dollar, and U.S. commodityprices were a good bit higher than today. EU imports of U.S. almonds more thandoubled in value between 1993 and 1996, and by 1996 accounted for 36 percent oftotal imports from the United States. However, by 2000 the import value fell 36percent from the 1996 high, and accounted for 27 percent of total imports from theU.S. EU imports of citrus fruit, which were strong between 1993 and 1996,

    declined by a third since 1996.One key strong area has been EU imports of U.S. wine, where the UK is theleading market. EU imports of U.S. wine have steadily increased. Between 1993and 2000, wine's share of total imports grew from only 4 percent to 16 percent.

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    EU Total Agricultural Trade with the United States

    Source World Trade Atlas

    1996 1997 1998 1999 20007

    8

    9

    10

    11

    12

    Billion $

    Imports from the United States

    Exports to The United States

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    EU Net Agricultural Trade With the United States

    Source: Eurostat and the World Trade Atlas1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

    -5

    -4

    -3

    -2

    -1

    0

    1

    2

    Billion U.S. $

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    EU Agricultural Imports from the United StatesChange in Net Value of Imports from 1996 to 2000

    Source: World Trade Atlas

    -1,200

    -1,000

    -800

    -600

    -400

    -200

    0

    Million U.S. $

    Oilseeds

    Animal Feeds

    Grains

    Fruits and Nuts

    Plywood

    Edible oils

    Meat

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    EU Agricultural Imports from the United StatesChange in Value of Fruit and Nuts Imports from 1996 to 2000

    Source: World Trade Atlas

    -400

    -200

    0

    Million U.S. $

    Almonds, Hazelnuts, etc.

    Other

    Citrus Fruit

    Raisins

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    EU Horticultural Trade with the United States

    Source World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20001

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    4

    4.5

    5

    Billion $

    Imports from the U.S.

    Exports to the U.S.

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    Net EU Horticultural Trade with the United States

    Source World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    Billion $

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    EU Imports of Selected Tree nuts

    Market Share of Leading Third Country Suppliers

    Excludes, Peanuts, Coconuts, Brazil nuts and Cashews

    Source; Eurostat and World Trade Atlas

    37.7%

    34.0%

    20.7%

    7.5%

    1993

    45.7%

    31.5%11.3%

    11.5%

    2000

    United States Turkey Iran Other

    $992 Million $1.15 Billion

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    EU Imports from the U.S. as a Percent of Total Imports

    and EU Horticultural Imports from the United States

    Source World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    Billion $ Percent

    Total Imports from 3rd Countries Percent from the U.S.

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    EU Exports to the U.S. as a Percent of Total Exports

    and EU Horticultural Exports to the United States

    Source: World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    Billion $ Percent

    Total Exports Percent to the U.S.

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    EU Horticultural Trade with the United States

    as a Percent of Total Exports and Imports

    Source: World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20005

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    Percent

    Percentage Imported from the US Percent Exported to the U.S.

    Percentage Imported from the United States

    Percentage Exported to the United States

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    Top 5 Principal Horticultural Product Imports from the United States

    Account for Two Thirds of Total

    Source: World Trade Atlas

    Tree nuts excludes, Peanuts, Coconuts, Brazil nuts and Cashews

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    Billion $

    Other Almonds, Hazelnuts, etc. Wine

    Juice Essential Oils Olives and Artichokes

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    Top 4 Principal Horticultural Product Exports to the United States

    Account for Nearly 70 Percent of Total

    Source: World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    Billion $

    Other Wine Beer Canned Olives and Artichokes Mineral Water

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    EU Exports to the United States of Selected Commodities

    Receiving Direct and Indirect Support from

    the EU Commission and Member States

    Source: World Trade Atlas

    1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    Million $

    FreshTomatoes

    FreshPeppers

    FreshMandarins

    CannedArtichokes

    CannedPeaches

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    EU Wine Trade with the United States

    Source: Eurostat and the World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    Billion U.S. $

    Wine Imports from the US Wine Exports to the the US

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    Net EU Wine Trade with the United States

    Source: Eurostat and the World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    1.2

    1.4

    1.6

    Billion U.S. $

    Net wine trade

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    EU Fresh Citrus Trade with the United States

    Source: Eurostat and the World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 20000

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    Million U.S. $

    Citrus Fruit Imports from the US Citrus Fruit Export to the US

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    EU Net Fresh Citrus Trade with the United States

    Source: Eurostat and the World Trade Atlas

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000-100,000

    -80,000

    -60,000

    -40,000

    -20,000

    0

    20,000

    40,000

    Thousand U.S. $

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    Total EU Fresh Mandarin Exports to Third CountriesPercent Exported to the United States

    Source: Eurostat and the World Trade Atlas

    1996 1997 1998 1999 2000100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    110

    Million U.S .$ Percent

    Total Mandarin Export Value Percent Exported to the US