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Page 1: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane


Page 2: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane


w i t h p l a y - a l o n g I C D

mel bay presents

"ffohll ooltraneEsserrtia.I Jazz l-ines

This book of original musical studies and analyses byGorey Christiansen and Kim Bock is designed to help

you develop your own personal improvising style.




John ColtraneThe Style of John ColtraneIazzLanguageGuide TonesBebop ScalesMixolydian BebopMajor BebopMinor BebopScalar Pattems3-t9Augmented DominantPlaying the Upper-Structure of ChordsTargetingSubstitutionsJohn Coltrane's StyleSummaryMinor Chord Material

Track l: TuningTrack 2: Minor Chord VampTrack 3: Minor Moving in Fourths

Dominant Seventh Chord MaterialTrack 4: Dominant Seventh VampTrack 5: Dominant Seventh Moving

in FourthsOne Measure ii-V (Short ii-V) Material

Track 6: Short ii-V VampTrack 7: Short ii-V Moving in Fourths

Two Measure ii-V (lnng ii-V) MaterialTrack 8: Long ii-V VampTrack 9: Long ii-V Moving in Fourths

Major (l) Chord MaterialTrack l0: Major Vamp

NT2 Track I l: Major Moving in Fourths3 Minor ii-V Material3 Track 12: Minor ii-V Vamp4 Track 13: Minor ii-V Moving in Fourths5 Play Along Recordings5 Track 14: Short ii-V-I Vamp7 Track 15: Short ii-V-I Moving in Fourths8 Track 16: Long ii-V-I Vamp9 Track 17: Long ii-V-I Moving in Fourthsl0 Track 18: Minor i i-V-i VampI I Track 19: Minor ii-V-i Moving in Fourths12 Tumarounds13 Track 20: Turnaround Vamp16 Track 21: Tumaround Moving in Fourths19 Creating Solos19 TrackZ2: Creating Solos20 Track23: Progression Similar to Pent Up House

Coltrane Changes/Giant StepsPracticins Coltrane Chanses24


Track24: Long ii-V-l with ColtraneChanges Vamp 55

Track25: Long ii-V-I with ColtraneChanges Moving in Fourths 55





21 Track26: Eight Measure28 Giant Steps Vamp3 I Track 27 : Progression Similar to3l Giant Steps32 Superimposing the Coltrane Changes35 Track 28: Blues for a Giant35 Track29: Snap Shots36 Conclusion39 Selected Discography

About the Authors

r 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0@ 2OO2 BY MEL BAY PUBLICATIONS, INC., PACIFIC, MO 63069.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT SECURED. B.M.I. MADE AND PRINTED IN U.S.A.No part ol lhis publication may be reproduced in whole or in part, or stored in a retrieval system, or transmined in any lormor by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of the publisher.

Visit us on the Web at - E-mail us at [email protected]

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John GoltraneJohn Coltrane (1926-1967) was one of the most innovative and creative jazz artists of the 20th Century. His

profound influence on not only saxophonists but also players of all instruments continues to this day. In a relativelyshort career, he constantly developed and evolved as a player. Both stylistically and harmonically, he opened doorsfor others to follow.

Coltrane's career can be divided into three main periods.

I) Joining Miles Davis in 1955, Coltrane was in an environment where he could explore and develop his ownstyle.Coltrane'splayingatthispointshowsevidenceofhismaininfluencesas ajazzplayercomingoutofthebeboparea. With a highly personal sound his playing is rooted in the bebop language. Influence of jazz greatsCharlie Parkerand tenor players like Dexter Gordon and Sonny Rollins is evident. During this time he evolved into a true virtuosoon the saxophone. Toward the end of this period, a critic coined the term "sheets of sound" to describe Coltrane'suse of sixteenth, thirty-second note, asymmetrical phrases and cascading runs in negotiating the chord changes hewas improvising over.

II) In Coltrane's second perid from late 1950's to the mid 1960's, he experimented more with various chordsubstitutions. This culminated with his groundbreaking compositions "Countdown" and "Giant Steps" (1959).These and other of his compositions feature a sophisticated chord progression of V-I's moving in major thirds thusproducing a tri-tonic system.

This is alsothe perid whereMilesDavis recordedthealbum "Kindof Blue." Itwas towardtheendof Coltrane'stenure with Miles Davis and the modal concepts on that recording inspired Coltrane. In the early 1960's, we see himemploy pedal points and he would write compositions based on certain modes instead of a set of regular chordchanges. When soloing over the pedal points he would experiment playing/superimposing various substitutions overthe given harmonic base thus controlling a higher level of tension/release.

III) Coltrane's third perid, from the mid 1960's until his death in1967, can be called his experimental period.He was delving into "free jazz" andexperimenting on many different levels. Often there would not be any specifiedchord progtessions and the musicians would react to the music of the moment. Coltrane experimented with differentinstrumentation with his groups, saxophone-sound devices such as alternate fingerings, harmonics, multifonics, andtimbral explorations were also expressive techniques Coltrane developed and adapted into his playing.

A deep feeling of intensity in his playing was present throughout his career. Long, soaring, high-energy soloswere characteristic for his stvle in the 1960's.

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The Style of John ColtraneThis book will focus on the first period of John Coltrane's career andthe jazz vocabulary he used. The text will

present numerous lines in the style of John Coltrane. These one, two and three measure lines have been grouped bythe harmony over which they can be used. Each line presented should be practiced with the accompanying play-alongCD. After the line has been mastered in the key in which it is presented, it should be mastered in all twelve keys.For this purpose, each section has a play-along track that modulates through the cycle of fourths. The line shouldbe transposed and practiced with the modulating play-along track to ensure mastery in all twelve keys.

Some of the techniques used in the John Coltrane style will also be discussed and examples shown. This willhelp musicians analyze each of the ideas presented, further ensuring mastery of these ideas. The goal is for manyof these ideas to be assimilated into each player's musical vocabulary. By understanding the concepts used increating the lines in this book, the player will be able to start creating his/trer own original ideas in the style of JohnColtrane.

We will also look at John Coltrane's use of chord change substitutions. The "Giant Steps" cycle will be analyzedand a practice model for the player to adapt this progression into his/trer own improvisation is presented.

It is imperative that you listen, listen and listen to the music of John Coltrane! A language can only be learnedif you know what it is supposed to sound like! Listen for the notes being played, and just as important, listen for thearticulation, the dynamics, the phrasing, the space in-between the notes, the sound of the tone and the overall feelingof the music.

Good luck and enjoy working with this wonderful music.

Corev & Kim

Jazz LanguageWhen John Coltrane came about as a player, jazz was continuously evolving in new and exciting ways. The

heritage from the swing area "giants" like Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young, Louis Armsffong, Ben Webster andmany others was still a major influence on any upcoming player. Just as important was the impact that the bebop"revolution" in the 1940's had on the development of jazz. Bebop creators Charlie Parker and John Birks "Dizzy"Gillespie developed a new style ofjazz. Fast tempos, high energy solos and highly sophisticated harmonic conceptsare all characteristics of the bebop style.

To better understand the musical environment a player like John Coltrane was a part of in the early 1950's, letus examine in detail some of the devices used in jazz improvisation and more specifically in the bebop style ofimprovising.


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Guide TonesGuide tones are the notes in a chord which lead or give harmonic pull toward.the next chord. This is typically

the third and the seventh of the chord. A simple ii-V-I progression will demonstrate how guide tones work. In theii-V-I progression, notice that the seventh of the Dm7 chord (C) leads to the third of the G7 chord (B) by a half step.The third degree of the Dm7 chord (F) is carried over to the seventh of the G7 chord (in a lower octave). In the G7chord the interval between the two guide tones B (third degree) and F (seventh degree) is actually a tri-tone. Thisis an interval with a high degree of tension and it naturally must move toward release. The release comes when wemove from the Dominant V chord (G7) to the Tonic I chord (CMaj7). The seventh of G7 (F) resolves to the thirdof C major (E) by moving down a half step and the third degree of G7 (B) carries over to CMajT where it becomesthe seventh degree.


When improvising over a ii-V-I progression, we often use guide tones. They help outlining the chord changes.The example below shows a typical line over a ii-V-I progression.



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tsebop ScalesBebop scales are scales with added chromatic passing tones which allow the chord tones in a scale (normally

the lst, 3rd, 5th and 7th scale degrees) to be played on down beats (strong beats) when eighth notes are playedthroughout the scale. This technique is widely used by jazz musicians. There are three.basic bebop scales. TheMixolydian (dominant seventh) bebop scale is used primarily on dominant seventh chords. The major bebop scalecan be used over major chords and the minor bebop scale can be used over minor chords. Each of these scales isan eight-note scale rather than the typical seven-note scale.

The Mixolydian bebop scale differs from the Mixolydian mode in that there is an extra note between the rootand the flatted seventh degree of the regular Mixolydian mode. This Mixolydian bebop scale is shown below.

Mixolydian Bebop(Played over dominant seventh chords)

Scale Degree

G Mixolydian Bebop

Mixolydian Bebop

o a = Root Note @

R +


* The scale diagram and fingerings in this book are only suggestions. Each student should experiment with their ownfingerings.




I t l ) l ) I

) ( ) l I I ) (

I t l I

l l ) o o II I

) ( )

r ( ) O O O tI I

r O O O rt l



@I l

I ) l ) ( > (, l

I II l l l l I I

) t t l I I ) {


I , I I

O) (

' ( ) ( 1 l

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When a musician starts on a downbeat and a chord tone and plays this scale with eighth notes, each of the chordtones in a dominant seventh chord will be played on a downbeat (strong beat). Because the bebop scales are eight-note scales, it takes exactly four counts to play each scale using eight notes.

G 7

The following musical example shows how one might use this scale when improvising over a dominant seventhchord.

G 7

Using the Mixolydian bebop over the ii-minor chordWhen playing over a ii-V progression, the Mixolydian bebop scale works perfect on the V chord (dominant).

However, the individual chord scales for the two chords all share the same notes. When looking at a ii-V in the keyof C major (Dmin7 - G7) the seven notes in the regular scales for D Dorian and G Mixolydian are all the same. Itis common to apply the Mixolydian bebop to the ii-minor chord as well as the V chord (Charlie Parker often usedthis device in his playing). The ii-V progression is seen as one structure where the Mixolydian bebop scale can beused (and not as two separate chords).

Note that when the Mixolydian bebop scale is played over the ii-minor chord, only two chord tones fall on astrong beat. That is okay. We will perceive the sound as a harmonic anticipation of the V chord.

Below are two examples of how one can use the Mixolydian bebop scale over both the ii-minor and the V chord.



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C Major Bebop

Major Bebop(Played over major seventh chords)

Major Bebop

f l+

Like the other bebop scales, the major bebop scale is an eighth-note scale and will take exactly four beats to playif eighth notes are used. If one starts on a chord tone and plays this scale utilizing eighth notes, each of the chordtones in the respective major chord will be played on a downbeat. The following page shows an example of how onemight use this scale when improvising.



I ) - l I

) t t I ) (

I ) - l I

) o o o (I I

I t l )

' O t I I r l


) o < D o (I t I




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Minor Bebop(Played over minor seventh chords)

As mentioned earlier, the Mixolydian bebop scale is often applied over both the ii-minor and the V chord in aii-V progression. However, it is possible to use a minor bebop scale over the ii-minor chord on its own. The minorbebop scale is shown as one example of a minor bebop scale.

The minor bebop scale differs from the Dorian mode in that it has an extra note between the root and the flattedseventh degree of the regular minor mode. The minor bebop scale is shown below.

o Minor Bebop

R + R

D Minor Bebop

I l l I I

> o o o o (I

r O O a a II t l


I )

' O O O O (

I t l I

I ) o oI I t l



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The minor bebop scale is an eight-note scale and will take exactly four beats to play if eighth notes are employed.Here is an example on how one can use this scale when improvising over a minor seventh chord.


A minor bebop scale with any chord tone on a downbeat and playing eighth notes allows the player to start onany chord tone (scale degree 1,b3, 5 and b7) and move in any direction (ascending or descending) and continuouslyplay chord tones on the strong beats. Practice these scales, starting on various chord tones (ascending anddescending).

Scalar PatternsJohn Coltrane used regular major and minor scales and the bebop scales in his playing. He would create various

scalar patterns and work them into his playing so they could be executed effortlessly. Below are some examples ofscalar patterns Coltrane would use.

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3 t o 1 9Three to flat nine is a technique that the bebop players developed and used extensively when playing over

dominant seventh chords. It is a very characteristic bebop device. If we take a ii-V-I progression in the key of C majorthe dominant V chord is G7. The third is a B and the flat nine is an A flat. There are a number of ways to get fromthe third to the flat nine. The first and most obvious way is by skip. Move from the third and ascend or descend tothe flat nine. Look at the example below.

Another way to get from the third to the flat nine is by playing the chord tones 3, 5, 7 and b9 of the dominant chord(G7) or a diminished arpeggio starting on the third. The direction of this arpeggio does not have to start and continuein only one direction. In fact, it sounds good when the direction changes. See examples below.

The flat nine is a note that creates a higher degree of tension. It resolves naturally down a half step. Usually atthe moment (or right before) the dominant V chord moves to the tonic I chord.

The following lines demonstrate how to use this technique when improvising over a ii-V-I progression. Noticethat the resolution of the flat nine also can occur one or two beats before the tonic I chord.


It is important to practice these techniques in all twelve keys. With practice, this material will flow effortlesslywhen improvising.

G 73



G 73

1 n

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Augmented DominantWhen playing over a ii-V-I progression, John Coltrane often played an augmented fifth (fifth scale degree raised

a half step) over the dominant chord. This increases the tension and the sharp fifth naturally resolves down with ahalf step to the ninth degree of the tonic I chord. See the examples below.

G+7 CMaj9 G+7

Here are some lines demonstrating the use of the augmented triad in the style of John Coltrane.

G+7 C G+7




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Playing the upper-structure of Ghords(Secondary Arpeggiosf

Another technique used by bebop musicians is arpeggiating the upper-structure of chords. The upper-structureof a chord is any note in the chord above the seventh. For example, a CmajT chord consists of a root (Cj, major third(E), perfectfifth (G) and majorseventh (B). These noteare derivedfromtheC majorscale. Theupper-structurechordtones (also called extensions) of the Cmaj7 chord are the ninth (D), eleventh (F) and the thirteenth (A). The way inwhich these notes relate to the major scale is shown below.

ScaleD e g r e e : L 2 3 4 5 6 7 1


It is very common to start on the third of achord and arpeggiate up to the ninth. An ex-ample of how this technique can be used over aD minor seventh chord is shown at right.

Notice the notes from this example are the same notes contained in an Fmaj7 chord. The upper-structure chordwill help create another chord. This is why the term secondary arpeggio is sometimes used to describe this technique.

t?.t ' (tl . 1 3 7 1" (6)

Shown at right are the second-ary aryeggios for the basic chordsin a ii-V-I progression.

Dm7 G 7

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TargetingAnother technique widely used is called targeting. Targeting is to precede a chord tone by a half step or a diatonic

scale step from above or below. There are a number of ways to target a chord tone. The first is by ascending ordescending chromatic approach. This technique is shown below. It is important to realize that while the examplesshown below use the chord tones from a C major chord, this technique may be used over any type of chord (minor,dominant, diminished etc.). Notice that the lines must be played rhythmically so the chord tones are played on thedown beats (strong beats).

O = ChordTones O = APProachTones


Iooo o



a aoo

oo I

O rI


I Oo

VIII - OptionalFingering

YIII - OptionalFingering

The next type of targeting is called "enclosure." An enclosure uses either scale tones above and belowchromatic tones above and below to literally enclose the target chord tone.

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The frst type of enclosure makes use of a scale tone above and a chromatic tone below'c

The next type of enclosure uses a scale tone below and a chromatic tone above'


VIII - OptionalFingering


oa e (


) o (ooo


1 2

o) O #) () ( ) ) l

( ) o l t) r ) (l l )o(oo

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Three-note enclosures can combine scale tones and chromatic tones above and below. A few examples of howthis would apply to the root of a C major chord are shown below. Use this concept with all the other chord tones.

oa( )

oBy combining scale tones and chromatic tones to enclosure a chord tone, almost limitless possibilities of

improvised lines may be constructed. Experiment with this concept to create your own original lines.The following line demonstrates how one can use the technique of targeting.



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SubstitutionsOne exciting harmonic technique the bebop players started exploring was the use of chord substitutions. When

jazzimprovisers use chord substitutions, they play over different chords than the rhythm section is playing at thatmoment.

A simple chord substitution when playing over a ii-V-I in the key of C major (Dmin7-G7-Cmaj7) would be toplay Bm7 (b5) over the G7 chord. As seen in the chapter on the upper-structure of chords, the Bm7 (b5) is the upper-strucrure of the G7 chord (3rd, 5th, 7th and the 9th). The Bm7 (b5) substitution will only contain diatonic tones inrelation to G7 and will not add harmonic tension.

Bebop players started substituting the dominant seventh chord (or both the minor ii and the dominant seventhchord) with chords containing less diatonic tones, thus increasing the harmonic tension.

A much-used substitution that Coltrane often employed is the ivm7 - bVIIT substitution.

Rhythm section plays



^ ivmT




One can combine the original ii-V with a substitution. While the rhythm section plays the ii-minor chord for onemeasure, the dominant 7 chord for one measure and then the I chord, play one measure of ii - V and in the nextmeasure the ivm7 - bVUZ substitution and finally end on the I chord. See the example below.

Rhythm section playsDm7

With the tri-tone substitution, the V chord is substituted with a seventh chord a tri-tone away (if the dominantis a G7 the tri-tone substitution is pbZ). In the earlier chapter on guide tones, we saw how the tri-tone interval betweenthe dominant's third degree and the seventh degree is a defining factor in the dominant chord's function of buildingtension and seeking release. The tri-tone substitution derives its name both because the chord is located a tri-toneaway from the original dominant chord but also from the fact that the original dominant chord and the new substitute


G 7V


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dominant chord share the same two notes in their build-in tri-tone interval. If the dominant in a ii-V-I is a G7, thethird is a B and the seventh is an F. The tri-tone substitution chord for G7 is Db7. The third of Db7 is an F and theseventh is a B. See the example below.

Rhythm section playsDm7

One can always precede a dominant chord with its related ii-minor chord. In the next example the tri-tonesubstitution is preceded by its related ii-minor chord.

Rhythm section playsDm7 CMajT

Here are some examples of how to use these substitutions when playing over a ii-V-I progression.

G 7

Rhythm section playsDm7



(bv otv)- ; - c b = B h

SubstitutionDm7 G7 abmT DD7


' i 6

- *

(cont. next page)


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It is important to note that the use of substitutions (of the dominant seventh chord or both the minor seventh andthe dominant seventh chord) increases the dissonance and tension of the moment and is only justified by thenecessary resolution which must occur on the I-chord of the ii-V-I progression.John Coltrane adapted these ideas of chord substitutions intohis own playing and composing and would developthis concept to a whole new level as can be seen in the chapter on "Coltrane Changes.,,

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John Goltrane's styleTo learn the languag e of jazz improvisation you must study the masters that came before you. John Coltrane was

no different than anybody else. His playing in the mid 1950's was clearly derived from the bebop tradition. Heemployed all the different improvisational devices covered in this book so far.

Once fluent in a language, musicians may begin to put their own personal stamp on it and an original voicedevelops. What gives a great player a personal sound and style is a combination of the notes (the vocabulary) playedand just as importantly how they are played.

John Coltrane was using various expressive devices in his playing. Listen to his solos and pay close attentionto how he articulares the notes. Sometimes he would use a lot of tonguing (every note in a whole phrase sometimes)and'sometimes he would play very legato (no tonguing). He would end phrases with a short note tongued or maybewith a longer note and a slight vibrato added. He would often use fast scale runs up to a target note at the beginningof phrases or bend up to a longer held note. Another important improvisational device employed by John Coltraneis rhythmic variation. His phrases often use a mixture of eighth notes, triplets and sixteenth notes.

Bebop scales, 3-b9, the use of augmenting the fifth of the dominant chord, playing the upper-structure, tri-toneand other substitutions, enclosures and targeting notes were all devices apparent in John Coltrane's vocabulary. Heused various scalar patterns combined with chord arpeggios to outline the harmony played at the moment.

These are all elements of what we can call John Coltrane's unique sound.

SummaryBy understanding and using the techniques presented, any musician will find it easier to analyze,memorize and

execute the lines provided in this book as well as lines from any transcribed solo. These techniques will help themusicians to assimilate the jazzJbebop language into their own playing. By working with the lines that follow, theplayer will acquire jazzvocabulary in the style of John Coltrane. Select a few lines for each harmonic situation andmasterthembyplayingthemin all twelvekeys with the accompanyingplay-along CD. By "inserting" the followinglines in the style of John Coltrane into a solo and mastering the techniques presented in this book, each player willeventually master the jazz language and develop hisftrer own style and sound.

Page 21: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Essential Jazz LinesFor this section, the student must select a line in the style of John Coltrane to master. Practice it in the given key

with the accompanying play-along CD and then use the CD track that modulates in fourths to master the line in alltwelve keys. By combining minor chord lines with dominant seventh chord material, musicians will be able to mixand match numerous combinations of these lines to play over the ii-V-I progression. Because the major and minorii-V-I progressions are the most common chord progressionsinjazz, it is crucial that studentsof jazzimprovisationare fluent in soloing over these progressions in all twelve keys.

Minor Chord Material@ Cm7o Cm7

@ Cm7

tEach example has been writtenout in common (4/4) time.

@ Cm7


O L r t J

t I g

Cm7 Cm7

d t J ' L l t -

Cm7 Qm7


o-o- t

Page 22: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

a t t v - - - -

Q , - u t --

c r e g E - t uJ 9 0 O I J - n



a) ,t2

o-t 7-8


o v - 1 - t


9 9


d J t J ' ' - '

E '


d - -

t -o

rt# 1 0


d l bi

8 - - 7 - 8 - 5 ^


Page 23: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane


T J - - . - t t J


g J g ^


!i---E- -

7-4-7-8-10-t v


T I_ _ : . - l J


@ cm7

I t - t I I )- [ ' - r , - J t -

Page 24: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

@ cm7


@ cm7

o l - � l l - � l - v - ( r )


4 21F--- '--�

a) '{ \t r

O J - e

@ cm7


o + - t J

o v v v v


Page 25: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Minor Chord Vamp



Minor Moving in Foufths&.



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Dominant Seventh Chord (Vl Materialo F 7 @ F 7*Each example has been written out in common (4/4) time.

@ F 7

@ F z

d f i J '



d ' b J J

r ; _ o - o ^ -

@ F z

U - - - a) 4

v - v g

@ F z

2 a -

9 g v 9

@ F 7

o _ t J - ' - L r


Page 27: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane


-r-r g 7- g-c-o-

@ F T

@ F z

+a-d J


e J - l ' - -


@ F7

@ F z

a) 4 \J


@ F 7

@ F 7

__1a) ,)

@ @ F zF 7

a) J

Page 28: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane


i , - \ J t _ / r= r{

a v a r- - - - - - - - - - - - - : - -o- . - , -o-

Dominant Seventh Vamp

&u Dominant Seventh Moving in Fourths4x's F,bl


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One Measure ii'V (Short ii-Vl Material.Each example has been written out in common (4/4) time.O c m 7 F 7 @

Cm7 Fzt - P




@ cm7


@ cm7


o r ' - r e (Di )

t l

,- ---=' E -

-___--_ _ s _ _ _ s , - - - 7 - T - 5 _ ? _----------- _:_--_-- I


-- _ + _ 8 - _ _ 5 _ _ - - - ---=-:-----]-l-


z,H\rJ t

= -----ru_6 iO ?_g_10_?_

ts}is --rtr--+-_+_d ---__Ei+


[-J Il

{ \ l


Page 30: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

@ F7Cm7

d -

@ cm7

@ cm7 F7 @ cm7 F7

F 7

a L t l3


o - -

a _

(F t+d , r

^ q t^ o o o r -o

@ cm7


Page 31: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

@ cm7 F7

a) e \l


@ cm7 F7

@ cm7

@ Cm7

@ cm7




F F F F F F F F � t ' - J 1 -



Page 32: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Short ii-V Vamp&u

&, Short ii-V Moving in Fourths, Fmt sbt

ebmz cf,mz


Page 33: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

F 7

F 7

Two Measure ii-V (Long ii-Vl Material*Each example has been written out in common (4/4) time.


@ crzt D

O cmz

d -,]-+l lt \t t t ,

@ .r,

@ crt


a - . , -


@ cm7

A\U Cm7

-8-11 - - 10(F7-8 1



Page 34: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

u - - t e

\ t ,

@ crz

@ crz

a) \J . J T J

9 t 9

@ c,nz

@ crz

@ crz




o e t e -

- J ' : E


Page 35: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

a) \l3

\ t ,

@ Cn7 F7F7 @ Cm7



aJ r! r=


@ "^,

aJ L"l r= +i-

a) t-J

@ cm7

@ Cm7 F7


Page 36: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Long ii-V Vamp

Long ii-V Moving in Fourths&,



Page 37: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Major Ghord (ll Materiat*Each example has been written out in common (4/4) time.

o a b

O - > /


@ e b

@ B b @

d \ J -

v 7--6-8-5

@ e b

t t t DI I t t | | I

- t . . t h Jo > ) - f rJ- - .


a T Lz

_ 5-7 g---:-7

- - t t - r t ^

d Lr

i, 9-r-o


Page 38: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

d b l 1 c

f-i\ |\.Y BD

@ B b

@ e b

@ e b

@ e b

@ e b



=+ffia) >) 11 .= - ---

-5-7-g ' 6rrr1110-

F '

a L 2 ' E E E J -



\ . l r ^ | - I

d b t J ' J_ 1 ' ' - J 1 1

_^-----------=-- - E---

- l

f h ! -

a) a r - - t 7 l

t l r l l l l - - - - f - - - T i - - - - T - lI T-]-F=-

a) r{ a

9 9 0

c) \ I - - l

-h_q_-7---5-7-S 5 - "0

d --vv 'J-- \ J | - ) [ - ]

Q ^ F - 6 7-


-o r jbJ dt .-w------



Page 39: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane


d - - l l - l11

, 9 V ^

t ^

@ B b

d J t-l 11


@ B b

@ B b

u t e b t ' '

c-1----d_---------- =--.--7--5---=_- J 9 J

@ B b

a) r - l L1

, - g t g tCT

@ B b

? 1 1,= -

t { _ t -5_7-6---n--

@ B b


Page 40: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Major Vampnb 6bvui7 or nbo;&,

&,, Major Moving in Foufthst l

3D (BaMajT or Bb6;


Page 41: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane



Q-a 6

*Each example has been written out in common (4/4) time.o Dm7(b5) czogl

Minor ii-V Material@ omz6s) czIsy

@ Dm7(b5) cz0s)

@ o mzbs) czpsy

@ o,ztfs) cz0gl


1 0

@ o mzds) oz0gl

a 3

1 1 - 1 0 - 71 0

@ omzds) cztbg)

@ omz(05) cztbs1


o' t n o


d , ' -


r ^ r r ea)


r { :-----=---:--

a) >r


G7(De)@ o mz0s)

Page 42: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane


^ J


@ o*z(bs) cz&gl

orzbs) czbgl

@ orrbu) cztbgl

@ o rzds) ez&gl

a) -

omz(Ds) G7(te)

omz(Ds) cz(bg)

o'nz0s) G7(te)

a) L l

omz&s) cz&g)

d l , ' - L 1 L l

-------------:- -10 -___¤_10 ________9_ -10

d f . t _ l - v . (+)


o- - - 1

@ o rrbu) cz1bs1 @


d . -

J - - ,

o 9 q o


omz(D5) , cz1bsy

Page 43: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

@ ,Dm7(b5)

@ orrdu) cztbgl


a) -


@ omzds) oz0g)


either combine two short ii-V lines or expand the material l

@ orzds)

Note: Forlong (two-measure) minorii-V progressions,for each chord in the progression.

a -

1 0


o mz(05) c70e)

a L -




Page 44: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane


Minor ii-V Vamp

Minor ii-V Moving in Foufthscmz0s) CTatt

Fm7(05) BD] alt


4x,s Bm7@5y E7 att

emz0s) D7 att

&nG7 alt

FTa l t

nil-zdsl ofrzurt

cfl-z0sl cflzatr

BTa l t

ATa l t






Page 45: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Use the following play along recordings to practice combining material for major and minor ii-V-tprogressions. Use the material provided in the minor chord section, dominant seventh chord section, short ii-Vsection, long ii-V section and major chord section. The possibilities for creating new lines are almost limitless.

Short ii-V-l Vamp

&,uC m 7 F 7 Bb MajT

Short ii-V-l Moving in FourthsSr, cmz Fz abu4z Fm7 ebz ebu4t





Gh MajT

E b m T nbt obu^it

rlz BMajT

Ff ,m7 EMajT AMajT

Em7 DMajT A m 7


G M a j T




Page 46: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Long ii-V-l Vamp

Long ii-V-l Moving in FourthsFz ebu4z


ob u4zebmz


cfim z



Page 47: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

B m 7 AMajT








G m 7


Page 48: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Minor ii-V-i VampDm7@5) GTatt Cm7&

A7 alt Dm7

Gm705) CTalt

pmz1bs) sbtatt EbmT

oflt"z0sl c#tatt cflrnz

cfl-zOsl r'f;zart Bm7

nmzds) E7 alt

Am7O5) D7 alt Gm7

Minor ii-V-i Moving in FourthsDm7@5) GTal t Cm7

cmz@s) FTalt BbmT

nfimzdsl ofizart cflmz

c$mz0sl cflzart Pfimz

efimz0sl BTa l t E m 7



Page 49: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

TurnaroundsThe most basic turnaround in jazzconsists of a minor ii-V leading to a major ii-V. The major ii-V resolves

to the tonic major chord. The turnaround occurs two measures before the progression resolves to the tonic chord.Because many tunes start with the tonic, the turnaround is commonly found in the last two measures of a tune. The I^ L ^ - l ^ n - - t l < i a ^ r -

- t l . . . qchords Om7b5, G7alt, Cm7, and F7 make up a tumaround in the key of Bb. This progression is shown below. Bycombining lines that work over a minor ii-V progression with major ii-V lines, one can easily construct lines thatwork well over a turnaround. The examples shown below illustrate how to combine minor and maior ii-V lines toimprovise over a turnaround.

D m 7 ( b 5 ) G T a l t C m 7

D m 7 ( b 5 ) G T a l t Cm7

D m 7 ( b 5 ) G T a l t C m 7

B z


Page 50: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Practice combining minor and major ii-V lines to solo over the following turnarounds. The followingturnarounds are recorded on the accompanying CD.

Turnaround VampD m 7 ( b 5 ) G T a l t C m 7 F7

&r. Dmz(bs) GTart Bb7

Turnaround Moving in FourthsCm7 F 7 G m 7 ( b 5 ) C T a l t Fm7

c m 7 ( b s ) F T a t t BbmT

ebmzlbs y ebt^u nbmz obt

cf lmzlbsy cf /a l t rfrmz

r f mz lbsy BTa t t Em7

ebz att Ebmz

DfmTlbsy cfzatt cf im7

B m 7

E T a l t Am7


rmz lbs ;

cfmzlbs; r f izarr

B m 7 ( h 5 ) D 7


Em z lbs ) ATatr D m 7 A m 7 ( b 5 ) D T a l t G m 7 c7

Page 51: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Greating solosThe following etude demonstrates how the lines and variations of the lines from the book can be used to create

an improvised solo.

& FMajT emzfisy nz0gl Dm7 G7 Cm7 F7

Short ii-V #13t- Major ffi -t l-Minor ii-V #L4-,-Short ii-V #14-l


;I)ominant Seventh #21 1

amz@s1 oz&glf- Minor ii-V #2

G7 Gm7 c7

;"Dominant Seventh #12-t t- Short ii.V #10 -r


t- Major#7emzb) ez0gl Dm7

r- Minor ii'V #17 -1G 7 Cm7 F7

Short ii-V#19 -rb

BW nmzds) oz0g) Gm7 c7;Ilominant Seventh #11 l- Minor ii-V #11-t l- Short ii-V #1S -l


Page 52: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane


;Two Measure ii-V Y231



Major #l -r


emzfsy A70e)



Dm7 G7

1- Short ii-V#8

Gm7 C7p Scalar Materiall

Cm7 Fz-t t- Short ii.V #26 -l



Minor ii-v #6 _lb

Bh nmz$s1 oztbgl Gm7 c7;,I)ominant Seventh #201 Minor ii_v #3 _r Short ii_v #l


;.Scalar Materiall

p Two Measure ii-V #15-r


Page 53: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

The following progression is similar to the jazzstandard "pent up House.,, This progression will make useii-v progressions' using the material from this book, practice improvising on this chord progression.

& Progression similar to pent Up House

Page 54: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Goltrane Chan ges/Giant StepsIn this part of the book, John Coltrane's "Giant Steps" and "Countdown" progressions will be examined.In 1959, John Coltrane was experimenting with various chord substitutions and re-harmonizations of chordprogressions. This process led up to his famous album Giant,Steps (Atlantic SD-1311).The tune "Giant Steps" and other tunes like "Countdown" are all utilizing a symmetric chord progressionconsisting of V-I's moving in a cycle of major thirds. The chord progression divid-es the octave into three equal partsand returns to its starting point upon completion of one cycle. It is also called a tri-tonic cycle (three tonic areas).In the key of C major, the first v-I moves to Ab major (tonicizes Ab major). Then the next V-I moves to E major(tonicizes E major, which is a major third down from Ab). Finally, the last V-I moves back to C major.This text will use the term "Coltrane changes" for this cycle.

Major third down Major third down Major third down"Forffi.ffi"

V T t o I

This cycle can be viewed as a sophisticated re-harmonization of a regular ii-V-I progression (..Countdown,, wasin fact written as a re-harmonization of the tune "Tune Up" which is based on three consecutive ii-V-I progressionsdescending in whole steps). See example below.

\JY7 tol

ii-v7-IDm7 G 7 c

trn l

Countdown/Coltrane Changes/SuDm7 (or C)* ED7


bstitutionsAb 87 E G 7 c

This progression is not a collection of random chords thrown together to create an ..outside,, sound, but rathera symmetric and well-balanced progression. This is why the progression does not sound too dissonant even thoughit moves through three tonic areas that are very distant and do not share many common tones.John Coltrane wrote a number of tunes incorporating this cycle in different ways. Listen to the albums Giant'sreps (Atlantic 13l l) and Coltrane's Sound(Atlantic r4rg).He also used the same cycle to reharmonize sectionsof standard tunes like "Body and soul" and "But Not For Me."* Important Note: In the "Countdown" progression, the frst chord is the ii-minor chord of the original ii-v-I progression (Dm7instead of c major)' when using Coltrane changes, the I chord and the related ii-minor chord are interchangeable (as shown in the exampleabove)' For practice purposes, first use the ii chord as the starting chord (as in the following examples and exercises). The material whichuses the ii-minor chord as a starting point works perfectly over the I chord as well.

VT to I


Page 55: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Practicing the Coltrane GhangesAneffective waytopractice Coltranechanges is toplay simplepatterns consistingofdifferentscaledegrees (alsoreferred to as digital patterns) at a slow tempo ttrougtr ttre Coltrane cycle. Selectpatterns starting on different scaledegrees to gain variety in soloing. Practice on" putt"- through the cycle. once in command of the individualpatterns, begin alternating two patterns (use one pattern for every other chord) and later add three or more patterns.Below are some suggested patterns. Make up original patterns as well.

Suggested patterns

*Each digital pattern may be permutated to create new digital patterns.Below are some patterns in the style of John Coltrane.





Page 56: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

The following chord progressions are similar to the first four measures of the tune "Countdown." which makesuse of Coltrane changes. Use these play-along tracks to master the patterns presented above and to develop originalpattern material. Experiment mixing up various patterns throughout the progression to achieve a less predictablesound.

&.. Long ii-V-l with Coltrane Changes Vampobz GDMajT ebuaiz

&,- Long ii-v-l with coltrane changes Moving in Fourths

obt BDMajT


EMajT nbu";z

Page 57: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane



GMajT rilz




BhvtajT FfMajz




Page 58: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

To practice improvising on "Giant Steps," use the concept described in "Practicing Coltrane Changes." For thefirst eight measures, select one pattern at a time and later, when control over the individual patterns has been gained,combine two or more patterns for a varied sound. The last eight measures of the tune consisting of ii-V-I progressionsis an excellent place to use material presented earlier in this book in the section containing lines in the style of JohnColtrane (use the short ii-V material).

Use the following two progressions to practice material for "Giant Steps."


cfrmz rfrz

Progression Similar to Giant Steps


Eight Measure Giant Steps Vamp


GM47 Bb7 ebrtr4z B MajTrIz


ebu4t Am7


\BMajT Fm7 ebz ebu";z

cfimz r#tAscending Major Third Interval



Page 59: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Superimposing the Coltrane GhangesAnother way the tri-tonic cycle can be used is as a substitution over a slow moving or static harmony (pedalpoints)' with rapidly shifting tonic areas, the cycle generates harmonic motion that serves well as a contrast whenplaying over one chord' Listen to John coltrane's recording of "Summertime,, from the album ..My FavoritcThings"(Atlantic-1361). Notice how he superimposes the cycle in his first solo break.on the following two tunes, the cycle has been superimposed at various places. The frst tune is a blues. Firs!there is a short solo recorded as an example. The piay-along track continues and the student should continueimprovising' superimposing the cycle at thi relevanipta"e. in the form. The cycle is used as a substitution for thelast four measures of the form. Notice that on every other chorus, the rhythm section will play tt " ."ffillli:iXi tthe end of the form' The player should continue superimposing the cycie while the rhythm section is ptaying the Iregular chord changes, thus attaining familiarity with the sound u, *ril as confidence in improuiring *itf;;ril; Ilevel of dissonance.

, i i

svrr lv rrr rrrrPruvrsrrrB

)The next solo' which is based on the chord changes of "Impressions," is included as an example of superimposing Ithe cycle over static harmony. -".rvrsgw Q qr e^.rtrPrs ur sr'

IUse other similar play-along tracks to practice this concept. IAlso use' if possible, a piano to sustain a bass note while playing the cycle. This is a good way of getting usedto the different tonic areas played over the ,.drone,, (sustained bass note).once again'-uk: sure to play very simple lines when superimposing the cycle. The cycle already generates alot of tension and if the soloist starts to play "outside" on what is already outsiie, the cycle will begin to loose itseffect and balance.


Page 60: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Blues for a Giant

e br.,t a;z

omzlbsl e ztbg)



Page 61: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane


Rhythm S. Ptays

Soloist PlaysG7(De)

\C m 7

- c r 7A7




Line that starts _I(Repeat for , 3rd chorusplay-along) Bb7


Page 62: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

Snap Shots


Dm7 )


Page 63: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

' J t I f -3 - - - f

Dm7 )


Page 64: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

ConclusionOur goal with this book is to give the player a practice model to incorporate vocabulary in the style of John

Coltrane into hislher playing. The lines presented should be used as examples and the player should eventually createhisArer own original lines based on the same concepts.

We hope you have a good time with the material. This is just one way of acquiring the vocabulary of thiswonderful music. The learning process for a jazzmusician is a never-ending journey and we always look to the greatplayers who came before us for inspiration. In this age, where we have access to a wealth of information and manygood books on jazz improvisation are available, the single most important learning device is still the same as it wasfor a jazz musician in the 1920's: Listen to the music. Listen,listen and listen to the albums of the greats and makesure to go out and hear the jazz players of today when they are playing in your area.

Keep the joy of the music and the curiosity strong.

-Corey and Kim.

Selected DiscographyMiles DavisMiles DavisMiles DavisMiles DavisMiles DavisMiles DavisMiles DavisPaul ChambersTadd DameronJohnny GriffinJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneThelonious MonkJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn Coltrane

John ColtraneJohn Coltrane

Cookin'Relaxin'Workin'Steamin''Roun"d About MidnightMilestonesKind of BlueWhims Of ChambersMating CallA Blowing SessionLush LifeBlue TrainThe BelieverTraneing InTrain's ReignThe Last TrainSettin'The PaceStandard ColtraneSoultraneBlack PearlsLive at the Five Spot Discovery!Coltrane TimeStardustBahiaGiant StepsColtrane JauColtrane Plays The BluesMy Favorite ThingsColtrane's SoundThe H eavywei ght ChampionComplete Atlantic Recordings, BoxAfrica/BrassLive At The Village Vanguard

PrestigePrestigePrestigePrestigeColumbiaColumbiaColumbiaBlue NotePrestigeBlue NotePrestigeBlue NotePrestigePrestigePrestigePrestigePrestigePrestigePrestigehestigeBlue NoteUnited ArtistsPrestigePrestigeAtlanticAtlanticAtlanticAtlanticAtlantic


7094712971667580949lr938163r534774515597581157772927651774673787213724371427316Dl10906563872687353l 3 l I13541382r36rl4l9

R27198461 0


Page 65: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

John Coltrane

John ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn ColtraneJohn Coltrane



LMPD4-232IMPD-21542GRD-120Impulse 32GRD-1573050IMPD-2OO77IMPD-24595912491959r409l l091209277

The Complete 196I ViltageVanguard Recordings, Box setColtraneImpressionsDear Old StockholmBalladsJohn Coltrane &Johnny HartmanDuke Ellington &John ColtraneColtrane Live At BirdlandCrescentA Love SupremeLiving SpaceAscensionLive at the Village Vanguard AgainTransitionOMMeditationsExpressionsInterstellar Space

About the AuthorsKim Bock' a native of Denmark, had already had an extensive performance career in Europe before he movedto America in I 994' He has performed and toured in the united states, Europe, Turkey, South Africa and now residesin New York.In March 2001 Kim started playing as the featured tenor saxophonist with the legendary trumpet player-extraordinaire Maynard Ferguson and His Big Bop Nouveau Band, touring extensively in the US. He has beenleading his own small group for years and can be heard around the New york area when he is not on the road.Past performance and recording credentials includes: Greenwich Blue, Dan McMillion Big Band, Georgecarroll' Bombed out cat, sanlikol Group, Larry camp, The Mars All-star Big Band, Kenny soderblom/JackPeterson Big Band, Bill Evans orchestra, Atlantic wavi Band.Kim received his Bachelor degree from Berklee college of Music in 1996 and a Masters degree in jazzperformance from University of South Florida in 199g.

corey christiansen began playing the guitar at the age of five. He studied with his father, Mike christiansen,(a seasoned performer, writer, and educator at utah State university) until he finished his bachelor,s degree. whileat utah State university, Corey received many honors and awards including the outstanding Music student Awardand outstanding Guitarist Award. The Lionel Hampton Jazz Festival named corey its outstanding Big BandGuitarist in 1995 and oursranding Solo Guitarist in 1995 and 1996.seeking a master of music degree in jazzperformance, Corey sought out renown ed jazzguitar educator, JackPetersen and began studies as a graduate teaching assistant at the university of south Florida. He received hismaster's degree in jazz performance in the spring of l999.Jack petersen retired that same year and Corey was hiredto take his place as an adjunct guitar instructor. while teaching at the University of south Florida, corey workedwith the jazz guitn students and directed many student jazz combos.corey is currently employed by Mel Bay Publications, Inc. as their guitar editor. corey,s musical backgroundcovers many styles of music including jazz, blues, classical, bluegrass, iolk, rock and popular music allowing himto perform in a number of different settings. As the guitar editor at Mel Bay publications, Inc. corey is available todo clinics on various guitar-related subjects at schools and music stores around the countrv.

Page 66: Essential Jazz Lines - Coltrane

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