Escaleras Trabajo Portland Fire

of 40/40
LADDER EVOLUTIONS – SECTION 8 PF&R Training Manual Page 1 July 2014 GLOSSARY FORWARD BEAM The firefighter closest to the heel position as the ladder is POSITION being raised on the beam. REAR BEAM The firefighter farthest from the heel position as the ladder is POSITION being raised on the beam. OUTSIDE BEAM The beam or pole farthest from the building, ladder flat and OR POLE parallel. LOWER POLE With the ladder on the beam, the firefighter at the lower pole POSITION position will handle the pole that is under the ladder. UPPER POLE With the ladder on the beam, the firefighter at the upper pole POSITION position will handle the pole that is on top of the ladder. ROOFER An accepted term for a roof ladder. INSIDE BEAM The firefighter closest to the building during the raise on the POSITION flat. OUTSIDE BEAM The firefighter opposite the inside beam position during the POSITION raise on the flat.
  • date post

    24-Sep-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    14
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

fire

Transcript of Escaleras Trabajo Portland Fire

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 1 July 2014

    GLOSSARY

    FORWARD BEAM The firefighter closest to the heel position as the ladder is POSITION being raised on the beam.

    REAR BEAM The firefighter farthest from the heel position as the ladder is POSITION being raised on the beam.

    OUTSIDE BEAM The beam or pole farthest from the building, ladder flat and OR POLE parallel.

    LOWER POLE With the ladder on the beam, the firefighter at the lower pole POSITION position will handle the pole that is under the ladder.

    UPPER POLE With the ladder on the beam, the firefighter at the upper pole POSITION position will handle the pole that is on top of the ladder.

    ROOFER An accepted term for a roof ladder.

    INSIDE BEAM The firefighter closest to the building during the raise on the POSITION flat.

    OUTSIDE BEAM The firefighter opposite the inside beam position during the POSITION raise on the flat.

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 2 July 2014

    PART I GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS

    The various ladder evolutions described here should be studied and considered as guides to the methods used at actual fire operations. The evolutions are not an end in themselves, but rather a means of developing the skills, teamwork, and feel of ladders for effective ladder work. Uniform fireground methods develop from training exercises. Therefore, evolutions should be followed during ladder drills with little deviation. The technique and discipline which result from competence in ladder evolutions will prove to be valuable during fireground operations.

    Safe and proper procedures in handling fire service ladders cannot be overemphasized and must be exercised at all times. No firefighter should be permitted on any ladder until it has been properly and safely placed for climbing.

    During ladder evolutions, the firefighter uses certain ladder handling skills. A thorough understanding of them is a prerequisite to successful ladder use. These skills have been detailed in Section 7, Ladder Practices. Supplementing these skills are rules and precautions that are important to learn. They are detailed in Parts I and II. The Ladder evolutions begin in Part III.

    The first group of rules and precautions to be considered are those dealing with the selection of ladders.

    LADDER SELECTION

    Selecting a ladder of the proper length to meet the needs of a particular situation is a skill requiring good judgment and experience. The result of selecting too short a ladder are self evident; too long a ladder is cumbersome to handle, awkward to place and difficult to work from.

    To develop proficiency in selection, the height of particular places such as windows, balconies, roofs and the ladders needed to reach them should be estimated during drills. These estimates should be checked by actually making the raises.

    On many commercial buildings a twenty-four foot ladder will reach second story windows, and a thirty-five foot ladder will reach third story windows. To reach windows above the third story, a forty-five foot ladder will usually be needed.

    The length of the ladder is marked on the outside of the beams at the heel end (Figure 1). This makes the various lengths of ladders easily identifiable and eliminates guesswork when removing ladders from the apparatus.

    (Figure 1 Ladder marked on outside of beam)

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 3 July 2014

    An extension ladder may be used partially extended or even fully closed. It can therefore be useful at many heights below its fully extended length.

    When ladders are taken down after being used, they should promptly be replaced on the truck.

    LADDER PLACEMENT

    Ladders must be placed in position so that safe and easy climbing will be assured. The responsibility for proper placement rests upon the officer in charge of raising them.

    There are a number of important items to consider in the placement of ladders before they can be considered safe for climbing.

    Look for obstructions that may complicate the placement of ladders. The method of raising and the

    location of the ladder can be affected by such things as trees, shrubs, overhead wires, signs, etc.

    Uneven terrain must be considered because it will determine the type of raise that is used. Ladders placed on a slope may also require the use of ladder blocks before the ladder is climbed.

    Spotting the heel of the ladder too far from the building makes it difficult to adjust the heel inward. It also makes lowering of the ladder to the building awkward and may result in damage to the ladder if the top should strike the building hard. Especially with ladders which are being raised to higher elevations, it is better to place the heel as close as feasible to the building and adjust the heel outward to the proper climbing angle after the ladder is raised (Figure 2).

    (Figure 2 Spotting ladder - right and wrong)

    RIGHT WRONG

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 4 July 2014

    Spot the heel of a ladder in line with the center of the window.

    Both stirrups of a ladder must be firmly and evenly placed to prevent the top of the ladder from sliding. The poles, if any, must be properly set and the upper end of the ladder must rest squarely on the building.

    When raising a ladder to a fire escape, spot the heel of the ladder so the top will rest on the fire escape after completion of the raise.

    A flatter climbing angle provides more stability for the climber than a steeper angle if a choice must be made for reasons such as an obstruction or tip placement at the window sill. However, a flat angle may cause the ladder heel to kick out when placed on hard surfaces like asphalt or concrete. In these situations, the heel of the ladder must be secured before it is climbed.

    A minimum of five rungs of a ladder should be above the point where the ladder rests on a parapet or edge of a roof (Figure 3a). When so placed, the ladder serves as a handhold for firefighters getting on or off the roof, provides a place to secure hose lines being stretched to the roof, and is more visible for firefighter egress.

    When a ladder is raised to a window for entry, firefighter exit, and/or hose line advancement (Figure 3b and c). The tip of the ladder should be placed at or slightly below the sill line. Ladders that project into the window opening become an obstruction if rapid exit from the window is required.

    If the intention is only to work the nozzle from outside the building, the top of the ladder may be rested on the building wall above the window and not placed in the window (Figure 3e).

    (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

    (Figure 3 Ladder placement)

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 5 July 2014

    Climbing Side In raising roof ladders for climbing, it is not critical that one certain side of the ladder be uppermost as the climbing side. For extension ladders, the manufacturer recommends that the ladder be placed for climbing with the fly outward in order to provide maximum safety and efficiency. This method has been adopted as Portland Fire & Rescue policy and is reflected in the following presentation of ladder raises.

    Raising the Fly When raising or lowering the fly section of an extension ladder, the following precautions should be observed for safety, standardization, and ease of operation.

    The ladder must be heeled at all times when the fly is being raised or lowered.

    Watching the top of the ladder will help keep the ladder in a vertical position.

    Firefighters steadying extension ladders should keep their hands on the outside of the beams and their fingers out of the trusses.

    The fixed halyard pulley is set at an angle at the top of the main section (Figure 4). Stay in close to the ladder when raising or lowering the fly to avoid jamming the halyard in the pulley. Adjust your position, if necessary, to keep the halyard riding in the pulley wheel groove.

    Lowering a ladder into a building by means of the halyard is unsafe.

    (Figure 4 Halyard pulley at top of main section)

    Poles must be at a 90 degree angle from each other while fly sections are being raised. Pole persons must verbally help each other keep the ladder vertical.

    Fly sections on all extension ladders should be lowered hand over hand rather than by allowing the halyard to slide through the hands.

    Before an extension ladder can be considered safe for climbing, the halyard must be secured at a convenient rung on the main section.

    When an extension ladder has been raised, the firefighter who is to secure the halyard reaches through the first and second rungs from the bottom and takes hold of the halyard and pulls on it with a steady tension. Constant tension must be held on the halyard until it has been secured. When the heel has been properly adjusted, the halyard is then tied. This action holds the fly section dogs

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 6 July 2014

    firmly seated on the main section, thus helping to prevent accidental unlocking of the dogs (Figure 5).

    (Figure 5 - Holding tension in halyard, before halyard is secured)

    Halyard Tie The halyard tie consists of making a turn on each side of the standing part of the halyard and finished with a half hitch. The slack of the halyard is taken up by pulling the rope through the backside of the ladder between the first and second rungs (Figure 6a). The end bight of the halyard is thrown between the rungs using a dart-like throwing motion (Figure 6b). At this point, you may need to take up additional slack by wrapping the halyard around additional rungs (Figure 6c). The rope is drawn back up on the backside of the ladder to complete the first turn (Figure 6d). A second turn is made on the opposite side of the standing part using the same throwing motion (Figure 6e). A half hitch is used to complete the halyard tie (Figure 6f and g). If the rope touches the ground, slack may be taken up by placing another half hitch around the standing part.

    (a) (Figure 6 The halyard tie, a-g) (b)

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 7 July 2014

    (d)

    (c)

    (e)

    (f) (g) (Figure 6 - The halyard tie (continued))

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 8 July 2014

    SECURING LADDERS

    After ladders have been raised, they sometimes have a tendency to slide from the position in which they have been placed. This lack of stability is often caused by the heel of the ladder resting on uneven ground or hard smooth surfaces; the ladder not being at its proper climbing angle; the top resting on a metal surface; or a charged line being operated from the ladder. High winds, icy conditions and improper climbing can also cause a ladder to be unsteady.

    For this reason, it is sometimes necessary to secure a ladder in position by tying it at the top, or by a firefighter anchoring the heel at the bottom. When a secured by tying it at the top, it should be tied by the first firefighter to climb the ladder. The ladder should be heeled by another firefighter until the tying is completed. A ladder being used for the operation of a charged line must be secured by tying or anchoring.

    Securing to Fire Escapes A short piece of rope is customarily carried attached to the top rung of the ladder used to reach fire escapes. It is tied to the rung of the fire escape just above the top rung of the raised ladder, using a clove hitch and a safety knot (Figure 7).

    If the distance from the top rung of the ladder to the next higher rung of the fire escape is such that the normal tie would fail to hold the top of the ladder snugly, a more positive tie must be employed. In this tie, the rope is taken over the next higher rung of the fire escape, and then down to and under the fire escape rung immediately below and brought

    back up to the top rung of the ladder and tied (Figure 8). The knot used here is also the clove hitch and safety knot.

    (Figure 7 Ladder secured to fire escape)

    (Figure 8 Alternate method of securing)

    Securing to Windows When it is considered essential to secure a ladder in a window, a short piece of rope or a utility strap can be used to secure the ladder to any convenient object inside the window.

    Securing to Roofs A ladder may be secured to a roof by the use of a personal rope or a utility

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 9 July 2014

    strap tied to some object on the roof, such as a vent pipe or the exposed sheeting of a shingled roof.

    Anchoring the Heel When it is desirable to secure a ladder by heeling, there are two methods that may be used. One is to place your toes

    against the stirrups of the ladder and grasp the beams firmly with your hands. The other method of anchoring the heel is employed when the ladder is constantly used as an avenue of travel. You stand underneath the ladder facing it. Grasping the beams firmly in your hands and use your body weight to anchor the ladder (Figure 9).

    (Figure 9 Two methods of anchoring the heel of a ladder)

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 10 July 2014

    PART II LADDER CARRIES

    Important considerations in carrying ladders are the stability and security of the ladder, the safety and comfort of the firefighters carrying the ladder, and the well-being of spectators and other firefighters present on the fireground.

    Firefighters should be conscious that the ladders they are handling are emergency equipment which, in addition to needing the best of care, must be properly handled so they effectively perform the emergency function for which they were designed.

    Teamwork in carrying and raising ladders lessens the possibility of strains and injuries and makes for greater speed and efficiency. Considerable practice is necessary to obtain the feel of ladders and to know how to control their weight properly. Good ladder practices result in safe and efficient laddering operations on the fireground. The rhythm, care, and cooperative procedure of an effective ladder company comes from meaningful, repetitive drilling.

    Ladders can be distorted by picking them up by the end of one beam. If lifted from the end, they should be lifted by both beams equally. One firefighter, rolling a ladder or turning it up onto the beam on the ground, should lift at the middle of the beam (Figure 10).

    (Figure 10 One person lifting or turning a ladder over in the horizontal position)

    Two firefighters lifting should position themselves one at each end of the beam. Ladders are designed to absorb stress at right angle to the rungs, and weight or strain applied at a greater or lesser angle can damage the ladder. A ladder weakened by mishandling such as distortion or slamming into a building may fail under stress and cause serious injury or death to the citizen or firefighter using it.

    Ladders should not be carried at a run but rather at a rapid, safe walk. Firefighters carrying a ladder should watch the path they are following for holes and obstructions that could cause

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 11 July 2014

    them to trip or stumble. They should also watch the ends of the ladder, keeping them in the clear and exercising care to avoid striking people on the fireground. Particular care must be taken when rounding a corner or entering a doorway. A warning shout is advisable in these instances as a safety precaution.

    Many ladder accidents occur at night when there is inadequate light, especially in smoky fireground conditions. A flashlight should be used for illumination and also to attract the attention of bystanders in order to clear a path through them.

    Ladders are carried between the apparatus and point of use in two positions: the beam position, with the rungs vertical; or the flat position, with the rungs horizontal. The beam position is normally used in carrying short ladders while the flat position is employed for longer, heavier ladders. There is also a vertical carry which is sometimes used to shift a ladder that has already been raised. This carry is presented in Section 7 as an individual skill. Vertical carries with multiple firefighters will be covered later in this section.

    CARRIES (ONE FIREFIGHTER)

    If a raised ladder is to be moved only a short distance, the vertical carry explained in Section 7 may be used. For longer carries, the ladder must be lowered and carried on the beam. It is never practical for a single firefighter to carry a ladder in the flat position.

    Beam Carry Place the ladder on its beam and take a position at the center. Then make a beam pickup for carry and proceed to the location where the ladder is to be used. The heel of the ladder should be pointed down to prevent serious injury if someone were to accidentally run into the ladder.

    CARRIES (TWO FIREFIGHTERS)

    Beam Carry The ladder is placed on the beam and the firefighters take their positions on the same side at the second rung from each end of the ladder and place the ladder on their shoulders using the beam pickup for carry.

    Underarm Carry The ladder is placed on the beam and the firefighters making the carry squat alongside the second rung from each end on the same side of the ladder. Facing the direction of carry and reaching over the ladder, they grasp the rung with the hand on that side with thumbs pointing downward. As the firefighters rise, the ladder is lifted to the underarm position and is ready to carry.

    The ladder may be picked up from the flat position in the following manner for either of the aforementioned carries: The firefighters position on the same side of the ladder and face the direction of carry. Grasping the second rung from each end with the hand next to the ladder, palms forward, they then place the ladder on their shoulders or under their arms as they rise to a standing position (Figure 11).

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 12 July 2014

    (Figure 11 Underarm carry, two FF)

    Vertical Carry The lead firefighter takes a position on one side of the ladder near the leading beam and faces the direction in which the ladder is to be placed. The hand nearest the ladder grasps the second or third rung from the heel close to the leading beam. Take hold of the beam overhead with the other hand.

    The second firefighter makes the vertical carry in front of the body, on the rear beam. Both firefighters lift and carry the ladder to the desired location while canting it slightly over the rear firefighter, as in the one firefighter vertical carry. A close watch is kept on the top of the ladder to see that remains properly balanced.

    CARRIES (THREE FIREFIGHTERS)

    Beam Carry This carry is performed the same as the two firefighter carry with the firefighters being distributed along the ladder and

    carrying it on their shoulders or under their arms. The third firefighter takes a position in the middle of the ladder on the opposite side from the end firefighters and passes the hand next to the ladder between the rungs and grasps the lower beam to assist in carrying the ladder. In other words, the two end firefighters will be on the same side of the ladder carrying it on their shoulders while the third firefighter, in the middle on the opposite side, will be carrying by the lower beam (Figure 12).

    (Figure 12 Beam carry, three FF)

    Flat Carry The three firefighters take their positions on the ladder as follows: Two firefighters are at the leading end, one on each side of the ladder about one fourth the distance from the end. The third firefighter is at the rear end of the ladder between the beams. The firefighters squat and pick the ladder up; the forward firefighters by means of the flat pickup for carry and the rear firefighter by the beam ends. The ladder is carried as shown in Figure 13.

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 13 July 2014

    (Figure 13 Flat carry, three FF)

    Vertical Carry This operation is performed in much the same manner as in the two firefighter vertical carry. The third firefighter takes a position on the opposite side of the ladder from the leading firefighter and the ladder is lifted and carried in the same way as in the two firefighter vertical carry.

    CARRIES (FOUR FIREFIGHTERS)

    Beam Carry This carry is performed the same as the three firefighter beam carry with the fourth firefighter taking a position on the same side of the ladder with the third firefighter. They adjust their positions so that each is about one-third the length of the ladder from the end.

    Flat Carry The firefighters take their positions at the ends of the ladder, two on each side, and make the flat pickup for carry. The ladder is carried on the shoulder. During transportation the direction of carry may be reversed by each firefighter placing the outer, or free hand, under the beam and at the same time turning toward the ladder to face the opposite direction with the ladder on the opposite shoulder (Figure 14).

    (Figure 14 Flat carry, four FF)

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 14 July 2014

    PART III LADDER RAISES

    For training purposes, the most often employed evolutions are presented here. Becoming familiar with and practicing these ladder evolutions will develop the teamwork and confidence necessary for an effective ladder company. Only the operation of raising the various ladders will be presented. To lower a ladder the procedure is reversed.

    ONE FIREFIGHTER LADDER RAISES

    Fundamentally there are two skill positions involved in raising ladders; the heel position and the beam position. For a one firefighter raise, the building, a curb, or etc., is used to heel the ladder and the firefighter making the raise operates in the beam position. One firefighter ladder raises can either be started on the flat (Figure 15), the beam (Figure 16), or by using the 24 foot extension ladder to raise to a fire escape balcony (Figure 17).

    One Firefighter - Right Angle

    Ladder is at a right angle to the building with the heel against the building.

    A. Perform a flat pickup for raise and keep heel of ladder against building.

    B. Adjust ladder to proper climbing angle.

    (Figure 15 One Firefighter - Right Angle Raise)

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 15 July 2014

    One Firefighter - Beam Raise

    Ladder is at a right angle to the building with the heel about one foot from the wall.

    A. Perform a beam pickup for carry.

    B. As the ladder reaches shoulder height, turn down flat, and shove the heel against the building.

    C. Complete the raise as a flat raise. Adjust to the proper climbing angle.

    (Figure 16 One Firefighter - Beam Raise)

    A B C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 16 July 2014

    One Firefighter - Fire Escape Extension Ladder Raise

    The ladder that is generally used for this raise is the 24 foot extension ladder found on all engines.

    A. Grasp the ladder rungs, climbing side away from body, spanning the middle of the ladder for balance. Spot the ladder upright with heel below and just to the balcony side of the fire escape ladder.

    B. Place one foot on the middle of the bottom rung with the next rung above resting against the shin. Raise the fly to the required height, using both hands on the halyard, and lock the dogs.

    C. Take hold of the beams and lower the ladder to the fire escape balcony.

    D. Roll the ladder over onto the fire escape ladder. Adjust the heel of the ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    (Figure 17 One Firefighter - Fire Escape Extension Ladder Raise)

    A B

    C D

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 17 July 2014

    TWO FIREFIGHTER LADDER RAISES

    When raising ladders with two or more firefighters, the decision to use a flat or beam raise that is either parallel or at a right angle to the building is determined by the presence of overhead obstructions, the clearance around the building, the direction of approach and the slope of the ground. Beam raises are the most efficient due to the rapid transition that is possible from a beam carry to a raise. When placing a ladder on sloped terrain, it should be raised so that the heel is across the slope when the ladder is brought to vertical. This will allow the ladder to stand straight up and make it easier to control as the fly is raised. For example, on ground that slopes away from the building, a flat right angle raise or a parallel beam raise should be used. In cases where the ground slope is parallel with the building, a right angle beam raise or a parallel flat raise should be used. Ladders placed on a slope may also require the use of ladder blocks before the ladder is climbed. Ladder blocks are inserted under the downhill beam from the inside (building side). This will result in the block becoming more secure as the ladder is loaded and will be less likley to dislodge.

    Two Firefighter - Flat Raise

    Beam Position A. Perform a flat pickup for raise. B. Move between ladder and building. C. Steady the ladder while it is lowered to the building. D. Assist in adjusting ladder to proper climbing angle.

    Heel Position A. Heel the ladder flat. B. Heel and steady the ladder. C. Lower ladder to the building. D. Turn ladder down to the building, adjust to proper climbing angle.

    A B

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 18 July 2014

    (Figure 18 Two Firefighters - Flat Raise)

    C D

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 19 July 2014

    Two Firefighter - Right Angle Raise

    Ladder is positioned flat at a right angle to the building. The heel of the ladder should be about four feet from the wall.

    Beam Position A. Flat or beam pickup for raise. B. Heel and steady the ladder while it is lowered to the building. C. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    Heel Position A. Heel the ladder in the flat or beam position. B. Lower the ladder to the building. C. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    (Figure 19 Two Firefighters - Right Angle Flat Raise)

    A B C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 20 July 2014

    Two Firefighter - Beam Raise

    This evolution starts with two firefighters carrying the ladder on the beam. When the place is reached where the ladder is to be raised, the firefighter at the heel position places the heel of the ladder on the ground, usually on the beam although it may be turned flat. The firefighter at that point heels the ladder while the other firefighter raises the ladder from the shoulder to the vertical.

    Beam Position A. Beam pickup for raise. B. Move to the side of the ladder opposite to the firefighter at the heel. Assist in

    lowering the ladder to the building. C. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    Heel Position A. Heel the ladder on the beam or flat. B. Heel and steady the ladder while it is lowered to the building. C. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    (Figure 20 Two Firefighters Parallel Beam Raise)

    A B C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 21 July 2014

    Under emergency conditions, two firefighters can raise extension ladders up to thirty-five feet in length.

    Two Firefighter - Flat Parallel Raise (35 Extension Ladder)

    Spot thirty-five foot extension ladder parallel to the building, climbing side up.

    Beam Position A. Flat pickup for raise. B. Move between ladder and building and raise fly. C. Maintain tension on halyard. Assist in lowering ladder to the building. Assist in

    turning ladder to building. D. Assist in adjusting ladder to proper climbing angles. Tie off halyard.

    Heel Position A. Heel ladder flat. B. Heel and steady ladder while fly is raised. C. Heel and steady ladder while it is lowered to the building. Turn ladder to building. D. Assist in adjusting ladder to proper climbing angle.

    (Figure 21 Two Firefighters - Flat Parallel Raise, 35 Extension Ladder)

    A B

    D C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 22 July 2014

    Two Firefighter - Right Angle Flat Raise (35 Extension Ladder)

    Ladder is positioned flat at a right angle with the climbing side down and the heel of the ladder about four feet from the wall.

    Beam Position A. Flat pickup for raise. B. Steady ladder while the fly is being raised. C. Assist in lowering the ladder to the building. D. Assist in adjusting ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    Heel Position A. Heel ladder in the flat position. B. Raise the fly. C. Maintain tension on halyard. Assist in lowering the ladder to the building. D. Assist in adjusting ladder to the proper climbing angle. Tie off halyard.

    (Figure 22 Two Firefighters - Right Angle Flat Raise, 35 Extension Ladder)

    A B

    D C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 23 July 2014

    Two Firefighters - Parallel Beam Raise (35 Extension Ladder)

    Beam Position A. Beam pickup for raise. B. Move between ladder and building and raise the fly. C. Maintain tension on halyard. Assist in lowering ladder to the building. D. Assist in adjusting ladder to the proper climbing angle. Tie off halyard.

    Heel Position A. Heel ladder on the beam. B. Steady the ladder while the fly is being raised. C. Assist in lowering the ladder to the building. D. Assist in adjusting ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    (Figure 23 Two Firefighters Parallel Beam Raise 35 Extension Ladder)

    B

    D C

    A

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 24 July 2014

    THREE FIREFIGHTER LADDER RAISES

    A three firefighter team is desirable when performing thirty-five feet ladder raises. The additional firefighter becomes a second beam position. The inside beam position is the firefighter at the beam, closest to the building. The outside beam position is the firefighter at the beam, opposite the inside beam position.

    Three Firefighters Parallel Flat Raise

    Inside Beam Position A. Flat pickup for raise. B. Raise the fly. C. Maintain tension on halyard. Assist in lowering ladder to building. Assist in turning

    ladder into building. D. Assist in adjusting ladder to proper climbing angle. Tie off halyard.

    Outside Beam Position A. Flat pickup for raise. B. Steady ladder while fly is being raised. C. Assist in lowering ladder to building. Assist in turning ladder into building. D. Assist in adjusting ladder to proper climbing angle.

    Heel Position A. Heel ladder in the flat position. B. Heel and steady ladder while fly is being raised. C. Heel and steady ladder as it is lowered to building. Assist in turning ladder into

    building. D. Assist in adjusting ladder to proper climbing angle.

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 25 July 2014

    (Figure 24 Three Firefighters - Parallel Flat Raise)

    A B

    D C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 26 July 2014

    Three Firefighters - Right Angle Flat Raise

    The ladder is flat at a right angle to the building and with the heel of the ladder four to six feet from the wall. The climbing side needs to be down.

    Beam Positions A. Flat pickup for raise. B. One beam person moves to the side position after the ladder is at the vertical and

    the other beam person steadies the ladder as the fly is being raised. C. Both beam positions assist in lowering the ladder to the building. D. Both beam positions adjust the ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    Heel Position A. Heel ladder in the flat position. B. Raise the fly. C. Maintain tension on halyard. Assist in lowering the ladder to the building. D. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle. Tie off halyard.

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 27 July 2014

    (Figure 25 Three Firefighters - Right Angle Flat Raise)

    A B

    D C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 28 July 2014

    Three Firefighters Parallel Beam Raise

    A three firefighter carry, spot, and raise is frequently employed. When this raise is made on the flat, make sure that the climbing side (the fly section) is up. When made on the beam as illustrated, the fly should be away from the building. The forward beam position is the firefighter that is closest to the heel position during the raise. The rear beam position is the firefighter that is furthest from the heel position during the raise.

    Rear Beam Position A. Beam pickup for raise. B. Move to the opposite side position of the ladder. Steady the ladder while fly is being

    raised. C. Assist in lowering ladder to building. D. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    Forward Beam Position A. Beam pickup for raise. B. Raise the fly. C. Maintain tension on halyard. Assist in lowering the ladder to the building. D. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle. Tie off halyard.

    Heel Position A. Heel the ladder on the beam. B. Heel and steady the ladder while the fly is being raised. C. Assist in lowering the ladder to the building. D. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle.

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 29 July 2014

    (Figure 26 Three Firefighters Parallel Beam Raise)

    A B

    D C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 30 July 2014

    FOUR FIREFIGHTER POLED LADDER RAISES

    The raising of 45 poled extension ladders usually requires the services of an entire four person crew. The company officer, who is responsible for the proper placing and raising of the ladder, takes the pole on the side of the ladder away from the building, the outside pole, whenever possible. This position gives the best overall view and direction of the evolution. The rest of the crew will operate at the other ladder positions. If additional firefighters are available, they should assume appropriate positions on the ladder to assist with the raise. Consideration should be given to double up the heel position first.

    When raising poled ladders, the firefighter at the heel position should be given every consideration possible. Initial lifting and raising of the ladder must be done by the firefighters at the beam positions. The firefighters at the pole positions assist only after the ladder has reached an angle which allows a push or pull on the poles to impart vertical rather than horizontal force.

    (Figure 27 Three section poled ladder)

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 31 July 2014

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 32 July 2014

    Four Firefighter Parallel Flat Raise (Poled Ladder)

    In this raise, the ladder is placed parallel and as close to the building as feasible. The climbing side is up and the heel is spotted to the middle of the window to which the ladder is being raised. Before beginning the raise, the end of the outside pole is unshipped and swung over to the firefighter handling the pole at the top of the ladder. The outside pole position is usually the officer or the firefighter in charge. The firefighter on the inside beam position will operate as the inside pole position after the raise.

    Inside Pole (Beam) Position A. Flat pickup for raise. B. Assume inside pole position between ladder and building. Move to position at right

    angle. C. Steady ladder while it is lowered to building. D. Place pole near building after turndown.

    Outside Beam Position A. Flat pickup for raise. B. Raise the fly. C. Maintain tension on halyard. Move between ladder and the building. Lower the

    ladder to the building. D. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle. Tie off halyard.

    Heel Position A. Heel the ladder in the flat position. B. Heel and steady ladder while the fly is raised. C. Steady the ladder while it is lowered to the building. Turn the ladder down to the

    building. D. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    Outside Pole Position A. Hold outside pole and take the position in line with the ladder. Assist in raise to the

    vertical. B. Move away from the building to a right angle from the ladder after the inside pole

    position has been established. Steady the ladder while the fly is being raised. C. Lower the ladder to the building. D. Place the pole near the building after the turndown.

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 33 July 2014

    (Figure 28 Four Firefighters Parallel Flat Raise Pole Ladder)

    A B

    D C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 34 July 2014

    Four Firefighters - Right Angle Flat Raise (Pole Ladder)

    The ladder is placed at a right angle to the building with the climbing side down and the heel about six feet from the building wall. The heel is spotted in line with the objective; window, balcony, etc. Before beginning the raise the right pole end is unshipped and swung over to the person handling the pole at the top of the ladder.

    Left Beam Position A. Flat pickup for raise. B. Hold left pole and assume a position parallel with the face of the ladder. Steady the

    ladder while the fly is being raised. C. Steady the ladder while it is being lowered to the building. D. Place the pole near the building after lowering.

    Right Beam Position A. Flat pickup for raise. B. Heel the ladder while the fly is being raised. C. Heel and steady the ladder while it is being lowered into the building. D. Assist and adjust the ladder to the proper climbing angle.

    Heel Position A. Heel the ladder in the flat position. B. Raise the fly. C. Maintain tension on halyard. Assist in lowering the ladder to the building. D. Assist in adjusting the ladder to the proper climbing angle. Tie off halyard.

    Pole Position A. Hold the pole at the position directly in line with the ladder. Assist in raising ladder to

    the vertical. B. Maintain same position and steady ladder while fly is being raised. C. Lower ladder to the building. D. Place pole near the building after lowering.

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 35 July 2014

    (Figure 29 Four Firefighters - Right Angle Flat Raise, Pole Ladder)

    A B

    D C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 36 July 2014

    Four firefighters - Shooting a straight ladder

    The ladder shoot is intended for use in those situations where, because of obstructions overhead, the ladder cannot be raised and lowered to the building in the normal manner. In this raise, the top of the ladder is slid up the face of the building by the firefighters at the beam positions, while the heel is pushed in toward the building by the firefighters at the heel positions.

    Beam positions

    A. Flat pickup for raise but remain standing in the same place facing the building. B. After pickup, remain in position while pushing the ladder up as the heel is advanced

    toward you. C. When the heel cannot be advanced any further, walk forward to bring the ladder to

    the vertical.

    Heel positions A. Take positions on each side of the ladder heel. Grasp the second rung and the

    beam near the fourth rung. B. As the firefighters on the beam raise the ladder, slide the heel along the ground

    toward them. C. When the heel of the ladder can no longer be advanced, heel the ladder as in a flat

    raise.

    (Figure 30 Four firefighters shooting a straight ladder.)

    A B C

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 37 July 2014

    PART IV SPECIAL OPERATIONS

    The ladder operations in this section have been developed to meet the need of special occasions, to supplement a normal evolution, and for use in extraordinary conditions.

    SPECIAL RAISE

    The name of each evolution in this section is descriptive of its particular use.

    Center of the Room Raise This is a means of raising a ladder for use when it is not possible to place the top against a building wall, such as in the center of a large auditorium. Either a straight or extension ladder may be used.

    To start, the ladder is laid out as an ordinary flat raise (If an extension ladder is to be used, the fly is moved up three or four rungs and the dogs locked). A roof rope is fastened to the top of each

    beam at the center of the ropes. (Figure 31). The ladder is then raised in the ordinary manner and the fly extended to desired height.

    (Figure 31 Rope secured to top of each beam for center of room raise)

    With the ladder in a vertical position, the tails of the two ropes are held by four firefighters, one firefighter on each tail at an angle of thirty to forty degrees with the face of the ladder (Figure 32). Each firefighter places the rope around the waist and draws it up taut by bringing a bight in the end of the rope around the hauling line.

    (Figure 32 Center of the room raise)

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 38 July 2014

    SUPPLEMENTARY OPERATIONS

    The following operations are supplementary to, or extensions of, regular operations but are employed often enough to be effectively developed and standardized.

    Positioning a Roofer - One Firefighter A roofer is brought to the base of the ladder to be climbed. The roofer is positioned with its heel against the building (similar to a single person straight ladder raise). The firefighter moves to the top of the roofer, rotates the hooks down and away (Figure 33), and proceeds with the single person raise against the building. The roofer is then placed upright, hooks away, against the ladder to be climbed (Figure 34).

    (Figure 33 - Opening hooks on a roofer)

    (Figure 34 Roofer positioned to be taken up a ladder)

    The firefighter who will place the roofer ascends the raised ladder to a position where the roofer can be placed on the shoulder by passing an arm through the rungs. This should be near the top of the roofer, where the ladder will balance when placed on the shoulder (Figure 35). The opened hooks on the roofer must be out away from the body.

    (Figure 35 Taking a roofer up a ladder)

    As the heel of the roofer leaves the ground, it is adjusted over the side of the ladder by bringing the forward beam of the roofer back tightly against the front of the shoulder.

    Continuing up the ladder to the location from which the roofer is to be placed, The firefighter reaches through the rungs of the climbing ladder, guides the ladder onto the roof and then slides it up the roof until the hooks can be

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 39 July 2014

    engaged with the roof ridge (Figure 36). The roofer can be slid either on the beam or in the flat position with hooks down.

    (Figure 36 Sliding a roofer up a roof)

    (Figure 37-Proper hand placement)

    Positioning a Roofer - Two Firefighters The roofer is beam carried to the base of the ladder to be climbed. Before climbing, the forward beam firefighter opens and locks the hooks on the roofer. The forward beam firefighter then grasps the top rung, with the hooks away or to the outside. The firefighter at the heel of the ladder grasps the last rung (Figure 38). They lift the ladder slightly off their shoulders and out to a position so the roofer is to the outside of the beam of the ladder being climbed. Both firefighters ascend the ladder, one hand sliding up the beam and the other grasping the roofer rung. Continuing up the ladder to the location from which the roofer is to be placed, the upper person reaches through the rungs of the climbing ladder and guides the roofer onto the roof where the firefighter in the lead can slide the it on the beam into place on the roof (Figure 39). The second firefighter assists by carrying the heel of the roofer as high as possible before letting go. At that point, the upper person lays the roofer either flat with the hooks down or on the beam and holds position. The lower person continues to climb until immediately below the upper person, and as a team, they position the roofer (Figure 40).

  • LADDER EVOLUTIONS SECTION 8

    PF&R Training Manual Page 40 July 2014

    (Figure 38 2 firefighters placing a roofer)

    (Figure 39 - 2 firefighters placing a roofer)

    (Figure 40 - 2 firefighters placing a roofer)

    When placing long roofers, after the hooks are opened the roofer is sometimes raised by a two firefighter raise and placed against the ladder to be climbed, as when one firefighter is placing a roofer. The firefighter in the lead then ascends the climbing ladder and grasps the ladder as before and the second firefighter takes hold of the bottom rung and the raise continues.

    Using a Ladder Over Open Spaces in Floors A straight ladder of any length may be used for protection across portions of a floor that has been burned and weakened. The ladder is laid flat and at an angle to take in as many of the joists as possible.