Epidemics and Pandemics
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EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS
How do they pertain to the 21st century?Megan Godfrey
WHAT ARE THEY?Epidemics rapid spread of something, usually an illnessPandemics occur over a wide geographic area
WHY WERE AT RISK...Microbes change their genes or mutate, each time they reproduceEnables them to adapt easier and jump between plants, animals, and humansDuring this process, new and lethal microorganisms are createdThey are then able to rapidly spread and kill humansGrowing population increases international trade and travel, this can create new diseasesInternational airline passengers have increased from 200 million in 1950 to 4 billion in 2005
CONTINUED...Disease experts say that international travel allows infectious disease to spread more quickly than in the pastToday, by the time a disease outbreak is discovered its a good chance that it has already spread to other placesThe changes in food production cause more diseaseMany food products are grown or manufactured in large quantities, when contamination does occur, it affects many peopleFactory farms 10s of thousands animals raised in crowded, unsanitary conditionsGlobal trade widens the reach of infectious diseaseCan be used as weapons
EXAMPLES OF EPIDEMICS & PANDEMICSAvian Flu (Bird Flu)the Avian Virus has the potential to be the cause of the next deadly flu pandemicUnsanitary conditions where avian species gather (food and poultry markets) spread virusEvidence that it can spread from human to human14 months following December 2003, there were 97 confirmed cases of the avian virus, 53 of the 97 people infected died
AIDSLife expectancies in HIV/AIDS affected countries are going to declineBy 2010, many countries in southern Africa are expected to have life expectancies falling to near 30 years of ageMedian survival time with AIDS is estimated to be around 10 yearsIn the past year the epidemic in Africa has claimed the lives of approx. 1.5 million peopleMore than 11 million children have been orphaned because of AIDS
CholeraAcute intestinal infection caused by contaminated food or waterIn Zimbabwe there are 16,700 cases so farThere have been 750 cases and 11 deaths in South Africa as it is spreadingWhen the rainy season hits, expecting a massive increase to around 60,000 cases
Type II Diabetes in children and young adultsChanged from a disease older people had to a disease of childrenIts due to the combination of insulin resistance and relative b-cell failureMost children who develop type II diabetes have a family member with itMost significant risk factor is obesityCurrently 15-20% of American teens are overweight5 million children areDiabetes occurs in children who are inactive Computer games and TV has contributed to type II diabetes Major public health problem, diabetes costs nation more than $100 billion per year
IN CONCLUSIONThere are many epidemics and pandemics present in the 21st century and with the increase in laziness, fast foods, population, changes in food production, and international trade and travel the risk for more epidemics and pandemics will only increase.
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Miller, Debra A. (2007). Pandemics. Michigan: Thomson Gale.
________. Responding to Zimbabwes Cholera Epidemic. (2008, December 10). Mercy Corps. Retrieved December 12, 2008, from http://www.mercycorps.org/countries/zimbabwe/
Sfakianos, Jeffery, N.(2006). Avian Flu. New York: Infobase Publishing.
_______. Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Young Adults: A "New Epidemic". (2002). Clinical Diabetes. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from http://clinical.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/full/20/4/217
_______. Zimbabwe's Cholera Epidemic "far from over". (2008, December 13). China View. Retrieved December 13, 2008, from http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-12/13/content_10499742.htm