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enTV Rel-14: A Transport System for Next Generation Broadcaster Services Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. @qualcomm_tech June 2018 Thomas Stockhammer Director Technical Standards @haudiobe

Transcript of enTVRel-14: A Transport System for Next Generation ...€¦ · Qualcomm ® Hexagon ™ 685 DSP...

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enTV Rel-14: A Transport System for Next Generation Broadcaster Services

Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.

@qualcomm_techJune 2018

Thomas StockhammerDirector Technical Standards@haudiobe

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Qualcomm Perspective

Problems and Challenges

Standardisation efforts� 3GPP enTV

� Outside 3GPP:

� DASH-IF

� Low-Latency DASH

� CMAF and CTA WAVE

� DVB-I

Summary

OUTLINE

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 2

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Intuitiveinteractions

Sound quality

Visual quality Immersion

We want to immerse youImmersion is enabled by different components that work together

Extreme pixel quantity and qualityScreen is very close to the eyes

Stereoscopic displayHumans see in 3D

Spherical viewLook anywhere with

a full 360° spherical view

High resolution audioUp to human hearing capabilities

3D audioRealistic 3D, positional, surround audio that is accurate to the real world

Crystal clear voiceClear voice that is enhanced with

noise cancellation technology

Precise motion trackingAccurate on-device motion tracking

Minimal latencyMinimized system latency

to remove perceptible lag

Natural user interfacesSeamlessly interact with VR using

natural movements, free from wires

Learn more about our vision for the future of VR: www.qualcomm.com/VRIEEE BMSB Valencia

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Peak Download Speed: 1.2 Gbps

Peak Upload Speed: 150 Mbps

Ultra HD Premium video playback and encoding @ 4K (3840x2160) 60fps, 10bit HDR, Rec 2020 color gamut

eXtended Reality (XR)

Sensors

Qualcomm® Snapdragon™ Neural Processing Engine (NPE) SDK

Snapdragon 845

IEEE BMSB Valencia

Snapdragon™

X20 LTE modemAdreno 630

Visual ProcessingSubsystem

Wi-Fi

Qualcomm®

Hexagon™ 685 DSPQualcomm

Spectra™ 280 ISP

Qualcomm

Aqstic™ AudioQualcomm®

Kryo™ 385 CPU

System MemoryQualcomm®

Mobile Security

*Compared to Snapdragon 835

Multimedia/XR/ARComputer vision, image processing,

sensor processing, graphics, video

processing, location, and cloud interaction

Benefits• Integrated and optimized

• Enhanced battery life

• Thermal efficiency

• Standardized implementation

• Mass market cost

• Variety of use cases and industry support

Entire SoC is used!

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Supporting Tangible Efforts

Qualcomm® Snapdragon™ 835/845 Mobile Multimedia/XR Platform

IEEE BMSB Valencia

Snapdragon835/845

Snapdragon XRSDK

HMD Accelerator Program

Purpose-built mobileprocessor for superiorXR experiences

Easy developer access toSnapdragon acceleratedXR libraries that simplifyapplication development

Reference designs, working with ODMs and technical support to commercializeXR HMDs quickly

Platform and Ecosystem support

Working with multiple content, technology and platform companiesStandardization

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Replicating and maintaining existing linear TV Broadcast Services

Enabling broadcast-grade linear TV service on the Internet

Making media more interactive and immersive

Enabling monetization of media services

Making services accessible on many different devices and platforms

Ensuring an end-to-end work flow with all enablers in place

Proprietary services vs. standardized approach – how many standards do you need?

Approaches:� Standardization

� Identifying commercial Demand

� Global efforts and standards

� End-to-end workflows and ecosystems

� Supporting implementations by test, trials, open source, conformance and reference tools

SOME PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 6

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eMBMSSince Rel-9 (MBMS since Rel-6)

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MBMS/LTE eMBMS/enTV HistoryBuilding upon a strong 3GPP technology foundation

IEEE BMSB Valencia

eMBMS defined for LTE starting

in Rel-8/Rel-91, improving

coverage and efficiency

eMBMS enhancements in

Rel-12 include MOOD2 and

expansion to MCPTT3

Enabling terrestrial broadcast and

expanding to new services; Meeting 7/10

5G Broadcast requirements4 in Rel-14

LTE eMBMS/enTV in 3GPP Rel-14

LTE LTE-AFurther enhancements5

to fully satisfy 5G broadcast requirements 5G

Target market focused on

Cellular operators

Target market expanded to

Broadcasters

3GPP Rel-14 (completed)

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Rel-14 enTVCompleted in June 2017

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Terrestrial broadcast for next-gen digital TV deliveryenTV1 — part of 3GPP Rel-14 — meets terrestrial TV broadcast requirements

IEEE BMSB Valencia

System layer enhancementsRadio access enhancements

Rel-14

enTV1

Rel-14enTVRel-14enTV

Broadcast

Broadcast

Unicast control

xMB

Content provider

Receive only modeDelivery of free-to-air content to devices

without SIM/service subscription

Transport only serviceTV broadcasters can deliver content

in native format without transcoding

Standardized interfaceContent providers can deliver media

over LTE with a unified framework

Shared broadcastMultiple operators can serve users

on a common broadcast carrier

Longer rangeNew 1-symbol numerology with longer

200us CP2 to support 15 km ISD3

More broadcast capacitySupports dedicated broadcast network

with 100% eMBMS carrier allocation

More deployment flexibilitySingle network for mobile and fixed devices

with enhanced support for rooftop reception

Better efficiencyNew subframe design reduces overhead

in dedicated broadcast transmissions

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System architecture

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MBMS Architecture Enhancements for TV service in Rel-14Optimized resource utilization, new service types, new device modes, open external interfaces

Shared MBMS BroadcastStandardized xMB interface

towards the (TV) content provider

Transport-only service

• Provide pass-through MBMS bearer service type

• Enable TV broadcasters to provide the content via MBMS in the native format without transcoding

• Simple receiver design

• Use MBMS network as common delivery platform for different content types and services

• Operators can aggregate their MBMS networks into a shared MBMS content distribution platform

• Avoid broadcasting the same content at the same time over different networks

• Improve coverage, bandwidth efficiency

• Unified framework for service type negotiations and agreements with content providers

• Enable dynamic service/session establishment

• Extendable to other types of content and content providers (V2X etc.)

Receive Only mode, Receive Only mode with

independent unicast

• Receive Only mode: enable devices without SIM card or 3GPP subscription

• Expand the reach of MBMS into traditional TV receivers

• Enable Free-to-Air content broadcast over MBMS

• Receive Only mode with independent unicast: enable interactive services feeding off of TV live broadcast

• Opportunity for more cost-effective data plans for mobile TV (bundled plans)IEEE BMSB Valencia

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Transport-only service type3GPP MBMS network as common content delivery platform

Transport-onlyOther

MBMS broadcast bearer

IP/UDP

FLUTE

3GP-DASH

ContentService

Announcement/Description

Lower layers

FEC

/

Transport-only mode provides pass-through MBMS bearerIEEE BMSB Valencia

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Receive Only Mode

ROM devices, ROM devices with independent unicast

• ROM device:◦ No subscription, does not need USIM, no registration,

anonymous reception◦ Only capable of MBMS reception◦ Equivalent to legacy TV receiver◦ Enables Free-to-Air TV services

• ROM with independent unicast◦ Enables wide range of interactive/hybrid services

• Features◦ From the content provider point of view, it is one device (with two modes of operation)◦ From the network operator point of view, it is two independent devices ◦ ROM service is broadcast on the reserved range of TMGIIEEE BMSB Valencia

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Standardized xMB interface towards content provider

• xMB interface is a RESTful API providing a unified framework for dynamic service/session type negotiation and establishment

• Offers various session types (application, streaming, file transfer, transport-only)

MBMS Client

E-UTRAN

incl. MBMS

bearerBMSC

Content Formats: PSS RTP Streaming

Content Formats: DVB, ATSC

Content: Software Updates, Stats, Weather Services, etc.

3GPP PSS RTP

TV

Transport only

TV

Data

ServiceData

ServiceData

Service

Web or Native ApplicationPortal/App

3GPP PSS RTP TV Receiver

TV Receiver

Data Services

Pre

sen

tatio

n

eMBMS Delivery

Management

MBMS-Aware

ApplicationxMB-CMBMS-API-C

Content Formats: 3GP-DASH3GPP PSS DASH

TV3GP-DASH

TV

xM

B-U

MB

MS

-AP

I-U

IEEE BMSB Valencia

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Content ProviderFreq. f1 – operator 1

Freq. f2 – operator 2

Freq. f3 – operator 3

Freq. f4 – shared broadcast

MBMS-GW

(shared)

RAN RAN RAN

Shared broadcast area

F4 is dedicated to shared

broadcast

Broadcast-Multicast

Service Center (shared)

MME MMEMME

f4 f4

Shared MBMS Broadcast

Shared MBMS broadcast allows operators to pool their MBMS broadcast resources to improve coverage and bandwidth efficiency

xMB interface

IEEE BMSB Valencia

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3GPP upper layer references (Release 14)

• 3GPP TS 23.246 MBMS Architecture (Annex D and Annex E)

• 3GPP TS 26.346 MBMS Protocols and Codecs

• 3GPP TS 26.347 MBMS APIs and URL

• 3GPP TS 29.116 xMB Interface

• 3GPP TS 24.117 TV Service Configuration Management Object

• 3GPP TS 24.116 Stage 3 aspects of MBMS service for Receive Only Mode

• 3GPP TR26.917: 3GPP-based TV Services

IEEE BMSB Valencia

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Radio access

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Radio Access Enhancements for MBMS in Release 14 Support of new deployment and device types, and dedicated broadcast carrier

Support of larger inter-site distance

Dedicated or mixed MBMS carrier

• Mixed unicast/broadcast from same carrier.

• Up to 100% MBMS allocation.

• Self-contained system information and sync signals for dedicated carrier.

• Larger cyclic prefix (200us) designed to cover 15km ISD.

• Target spectral efficiency of 2bps/Hzwith rooftop antennas.

• Introduction of an intermediate numerology with 33us CP.

Different types of devices

• Enhanced support for rooftop reception, handheld devices and car-mounted antenna.

• Multiple numerologies (15kHz, 7.5kHz and 1.25kHz) designed for different deployment/mobility scenarios

New subframe type

• New type of MBSFN subframe without unicast control region.

• Reduces overhead in MBMS transmissions with respect to previous releases.

IEEE BMSB Valencia

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Service layer

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2121

TS 26.347: MBMS API and URL • MBMS User Services in TS26.346

provide (too) many features

• Content can be accessed through

well-defined APIs,

• application communicates with

the MBMS client to discover

services and serve existing

media players.

• Architecture

• supports distribution of existing

TV services (e.g. DVB),

• enables new capabilities to

support dynamic bc/uc handoff,

consumption reporting, etc.

• APIs may be implemented within a

device or as network interface, i.e.

MBMS service terminates in a

gateway (� media server)

• https://developer.android.com/ref

erence/android/telephony/mbms/

package-summary

IEEE BMSB Valencia

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HTML-5, DASH and TV Video Profiles (Rel-13)

• DASH Enhancements

• Alignment with industry profiles and

technologies to enable cross-domain

deployments including Live and Ad

Insertion

• DVB-DASH aligned

• TV video profile

• Consistent set of video profiles HD

and UHD distribution aligned with

DVB AVC

• DVB UHD-1 phase 1

• HTML-5 profile

• Media-centric profile aligned with TV

industry adding for example MSE and

EME APIs

• Further Extensions in Rel-15

Distribution Formats for hybrid services, web-centric and enables TV Video Experiences

IEEE BMSB Valencia

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• Transparent Delivery Mode for External ADU flows ◦ Permits usage as MBMS

Service as well as for external usage

◦ Session Description and Transport Protocol

◦ Service Announcement Profile

• Service API for Transparent Mode◦ Permits service discovery from

an Application for Transparent MBMS Services

• Receive Only Mode (ROM) services (and ROM-UEs)◦ TMGIs correspond to a

reserved range of values ◦ Service Announcement is sent

on this channel

• File Manifest for File Download Service

CompletedWork in SA4/CT3 forRel-14

MBMS

Client

E-UTRAN

incl. MBMS

bearerBMSC

Content Formats: PSS RTP Streaming

Content Formats: DVB, ATSC

Content: Software Updates, Stats, Weather Services, etc.

RTP TV

Transport

only TV

Data

ServiceData

ServiceData

Service

Web or Native ApplicationPortal/

App

RTP TV

TV Receiver

Data Services

Pre

sen

tatio

n

eMBMS Delivery

Management

MBMS-Aware

ApplicationxMB-C MBMS-API-U

Content Formats: 3GP-DASHDASH TV 3GP-DASH

TV

xM

B-U

MB

MS

-AP

I U

ser

Pla

ne

IEEE BMSB Valencia

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Example

2 DVB IPTV MPEG-2 TS over as MBMS User Service

v=0

o=ghost 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 192.168.10.10

s=3GPP MBMS Transport-only SDP Example

i=Example of MBMS transport-only SDP file

u=http://www.infoserver.example.com/ae600

[email protected]

c=IN IP6 FF1E:03AD::7F2E:172A:1E24

t=3034423619 3042462419

b=AS:8000000

a=mbms-mode:broadcast 123869108302929 1

a=source-filter: incl IN IP6 * 2001:210:1:2:240:96FF:FE25:8EC9

m=video 4002 UDP/RTP/AVP 96

b=TIAS:4000000

a=mbms-framing-header:0 2

a=rtpmap:100 MP2T/90000

m=video 4002 RTP/AVP 98

b=TIAS:4000000

a=rtpmap:100 MP2T/90000

a=mbms-framing-trailer:0 2

IEEE BMSB Valencia

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Example Call flow

Media Client MAA MBMS Client BMSC Content Provider

content announcement

request transport only content

Content Delivery

Service Announcement

getPacketServices("transparent-rom")

Start Delivery

startPacketService()

serviceStarted()

provide SDP

initiate packet forwarding

packet forwarding

stopPacketService()

stop packet reception

Stop packet Reception

stop packet forwarding

http://msc-generator.sourceforge.net v5.4

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB Valencia 25

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Outside 3GPP

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DASH-IF

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 27

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CONTINUING TO SUPPORT DASH ADOPTION …

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA

Founded in 2012 after MPEG-DASH completion, DASH-IF addresses• Interoperability• Promotion• Supporting other SDOs and our membersfor interoperable deployment of massively scalable Internet Streaming Services

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WORK PLAN

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 29

DASH-IF IOP 4.1V4.0 +

Test database

29

V

DASH-AVC/264 2.0

DASH-IF IOP 3.3

• Live services• Ad-insertion• AC-4• MPEG-H Audio• HTTPS support• Key Rotation• Cross Adaptation Set

Switching• Callback events• Period continuity

CPIX V1.0

live Services for AVC/264 2.0

Conformance 3.3

Test Suite 3.0

UHD/HDR/Dynamic Metadata

dash.js v1.3 dash.js v2.0

ATSC 3.0 DASH Profile V1•Broadcast TV profile

•Next Gen Audio•Temp scalable HEVC

•App based xlink

dash.js v2.5

CPIX V2.0

Content Anno-tation& Selection

VP9

CMAF & DASH

Conformance 3.0

Test Suite 3.0

Token Access Control V1.0

Robust linear

Live w lower latency w DVB

DASH-IF IOP 4.0

V3.3 +• UHD/HDR• Alignment w 23009-1

Amd 3 & 4

DRM Support Improvement

DASH SAND White Paper

Ad insertion improvements

SAND ModesConformance 4.0

Test Suite 4.0

Dolby Vision

Segment Variants for Watermarking

Thumbnail navigation

DASH Metric Position Paper

dash.js 2.6

W3 Clear Key

Last segment signaling

DASH-IF IOP V5

ATSC 3.0 DASH Profile V1.1V1 +• HDR• DASH for NRT content

Position Paper on uncommon enc.

Multi-dependent stream - ESPEX

dash.js 2.6.3

DASH-IF IOP 4.2• Bugfixes• Audio

alignments

CPIX V2.1

USAC IOP

ETSI SPEC

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TEST VECTOR GENERATION HIGH-LEVEL FRAMEWORK AND DASH-IF ASSETS

DASH-

IF ContentPass? Match?

Apply fixes

Test vectors

Yes

Yes

No

Test cases

DASH-IF IOP

Content

Generation

Reference

ClientTest Playback

No

Conforming test

vectors Yes

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LOW-LATENCY DASH

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 31

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Random Access and Start-up Delay

End-to-End Latency

Compression Efficiency

Network Efficiency and Scalability� Number of Requests

� Number of Invalid Requests

Robustness to Errors

Note: Not all apply for all services, but may be relevant

KEY FUNCTIONS AND PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 32

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SOME DVB WORLD 2017 SLIDES

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA

Red Bull

Akamai

33

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DVB� Completion of use cases (together with DASH-IF) and Commercial

Requirements for Low-Latency DASH

� Encoder to Screen Latency of 3.5 seconds

� Live Edge Start-up Delay in the order of 1 second or less

� presentation of a media time at a specific wall-clock time within 500ms tolerance

� updated DVB-DASH specification shall be completed by Q4/2018

� Technical work just started with outreach to DASH-IF

DASH-IF� In the progress of drafting guidelines for Low-Latency DASH

� Context of real service operation issues: Program changes, ad insertion, operational problems, scalability

� Guidelines include

� Interface between Encoder and DASH Packager assuming CMAF packaging

� DASH Packager Operation including MPD generation and MPD updates, as well as segment generation for simple, live and broadcast client

� Client Implementation Guidelines and requirements: buffers, ABR logic, etc.

� Development of test, reference and conformance tools

STATUS OF THE WORK IN DASH-IF AND DVB

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 34

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CMAF AND CTA WAVE

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CMAFContent

Stand-alone HLS

HLS as HTML-5 video tag

Stand-alone DASH

DASH as HTML-5 video tag

HTML-5 MSE-based Type-3

player

CDN,Broadcast, multicast

Application

DASH MPD

HLS M3U8

referencing

DIFFERENT PLAYERS – SINGLE ENCODING AND COMMON DELIVERY

6/11/2018 36

Platforms and PlayersContent OfferingManifest Delivery

IEEE BMSB VALENCIA

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CTA WAVE

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 37

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COMMERCIAL OTT VIDEO ISSUES: CONTENT FORMAT ISSUES

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Content Format

m3u8

HLS

mpd

DASH

ismc

Smooth

f4m

HDS

Each asset copied to multiple media formats

• different video codecs• different audio codecs• Regional frame rates

Cost to content creators and distributors

Inefficiencies in content delivery networks (CDNs)

Storage costs

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA

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Device Playback

mobileapps

PCapps

TVapps

gameapps

set-topapps

COMMERCIAL OTT VIDEO ISSUES: DEVICE PLAYBACK ISSUES

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- Switching bitrate glitches

- Codec incompatibility

- Scaling display issues

- Partial profile support

- Long-term playback instability

- Audio discontinuities

- Request protocol deficiencies

- Memory problems

- CPU weakness

- Variable HDR support

- Unknown capabilities

- Ad splicing problems

Content Format

m3u8

HLS

mpd

DASH

ismc

Smooth

f4m

HDS6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA

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Reference Platform

COMMERCIAL OTT VIDEO ISSUES: REFERENCE PLATFORM ISSUES

40

testapps

- Distributors need consistent app behavior across platforms

- WAVE testing needs neutral, well-known reference platform

- Each device platform has different video features, APIs and semantics.

Content Format

m3u8

HLS

mpd

DASH

ismc

Smooth

f4m

HDS

Device Playback

mobileapps

PCapps

TVapps

gameapps

set-topapps

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA

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WAVE ORGANIZATION

41

Addressing Content Preparation

Problems

Addressing Player Application

Environment Problems

Addressing Device Playback

Problems

Steering CommitteeSteering Committee

Technical Working GroupTechnical Working Group

Test & Compliance Task ForceTest & Compliance Task Force

Content Specification Task

Force

Content Specification Task

Force

Device PlaybackCapabilities Task Force

Device PlaybackCapabilities Task Force

HTML5 API

Task Force

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA

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DVB INTERNET SERVICES (DVB-I)

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 42

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DVB-I, the mission…

• DVB-I, where the “I” stands for “Internet”

– In the context of audio-visual services, “The Internet” is used for “Over-The-Top” (OTT) delivery

– Well, “The Internet”, as in “CDN overlaid, edge assisted, adaptive delivery, media cloud”

• …To enable DVB services to be discovered and consumed by devices with basic Internet connectivity, principally a non-managed broadband connection and HTTP access, providing a similar user proposition to that of a DVB broadcast service

43IEEE BMSB Valencia

The Internet

1..n

1..n 1..n1..n

1..n

ISP network

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DVB-I, the vision

• Harnessing foundation technologies to provide a complete DVB solution for live OTT delivery:

– DVB-DASH (ABR – adaptive bit-rate)

• ETSI TS 103 285

– Low-latency DASH (LL-DASH)

• Technical work started

– Multicast ABR (MABR) - within suitably capable operator networks

• Technical work ongoing

• Reference Architecture published

– DVB blue book A176

• Potential synergies with other ongoing DVB work items:

– Targeted Advertising

– Home Broadcast

• Potential liaison activities:

44IEEE BMSB Valencia

DVB-I

DVB-DASH LL-DASH MABR

Signalling/

Metadata

Service

Discovery

DVB AV Codecs

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DVB-I, the vision

• Functional overview; likely roles and elements of the DVB-I specification

45IEEE BMSB Valencia

DVB-I

service

portal

Aggregator

Broadcaster

DVB-Itransmission

Gatekeeper

e.g. DTT

§§§ Regulator

Presentation

PresentationPresentation

e.g. 3GPP EnTV

Where appropriate/necessary:

• Licensed broadcasters only;

• Protect end users from illegal

/ subversive services

Enable integration of

service lists or innovation

in their management

TV device

Non-TV

device

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46

enTV—a strong candidate for next-gen digital TV

Targeting deployments in re-farmed 700 MHz (e.g. Europe)

Regulation compliantAllows frequency reuse and adheres

to ITU-GE-06 to protect existing DTT2

services

Wide-area coverageProvides at least 50% edge coverage

3for fixed

TV and 95% area coverage for mobile TV

Diverse servicesSupports free-to-air content delivery, paid media

4

streaming, as well as applications

Diverse deploymentsSupports fixed (e.g., rooftop) and mobile

(e.g., smartphone) receptions in a common

spectrum allocation

Meeting all EU digital TV broadcast requirements

DVB-T/T2 for terrestrial TV

DVB-T/T2 for terrestrial TV

470 MHz 608 MHz 694 MHz614 MHz

eMBMS for terrestrial TV (for same # of channels)

470 MHz 608 MHz 694 MHz614 MHz

Spectrum freed-up for new use cases, e.g., 5G

IEEE BMSB Valencia

eMBMS / enTV’s higher efficiency1

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47

High spectrum efficiency

Scalable capacity

For next-gen digital TV delivery

Meets 5G broadcast requirements

LTE eMBMS/enTVis the 5G Broadcast solution

Ubiquitous LTE

Initial 5G NR

Digital TVDrones

Gigabit LTEPrivate LTE

LTE IoT

C-V2X

IEEE BMSB Valencia

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SUMMARY

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 48

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Standards remain relevant for the TV Grade Media moving to new devices and experiences, but different approaches necessary

No longer vertical services, but individual enablers

APIs, testing, reference implementations, modular designs

SUMMARY

6/11/2018 IEEE BMSB VALENCIA 49

JOIN THE EFFORTS

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50

Qualcomm & al. related event on May 16, 2018https://www.qualcomm.com/videos/5g-broadcast-evolution-based-entv-3gpp

IEEE BMSB Valencia

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For more information, visit us at:

www.qualcomm.com & www.qualcomm.com/blog

Thank you!

Nothing in these materials is an offer to sell any of the

components or devices referenced herein.

©2018 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its affiliated

companies. All Rights Reserved.

Qualcomm and Snapdragon are trademarks of Qualcomm

Incorporated, registered in the United States and other

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References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean Qualcomm

Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsidiaries

or business units within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as

applicable. Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing

business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm

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Qualcomm’s engineering, research and development functions, and

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