Enlightened Despotism: Absolutism with a Smile. What was “Enlightened Despotism”? Definition:...

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Transcript of Enlightened Despotism: Absolutism with a Smile. What was “Enlightened Despotism”? Definition:...

  • Enlightened Despotism:

    Absolutism with a Smile

  • What was Enlightened Despotism?Definition: Absolutist states influenced by the ideals of the EnlightenmentEquality of all under lawSupport for natural rights religious toleration freedom of speech, pressright to private propertylimits on torture/capital punishmentPatronage of Arts & Education

  • Europe in the 18th CenturyExceptions:FranceBritainPolandEnlightened Despotism:AustriaPrussiaRussia

  • France: Louis XV, 1715-1774Problems left by Louis XIVLazy, weakEasily influencedSeven Years WarEnormous Debt

    Madame de PompadourLouis XV

  • Great Britain: King & ParliamentParliamentPowerful AristocracyPeers (H of Lords)Landed Gentry (H of Commons)Unequal RepresentationNew cities lack MPsPocket Boroughs

    KingHanover DynastyRelied Heavily on Prime Ministers (Walpole, Pitt)George IGeorge IIGeorge III

  • Important Prime Ministers

    William Pitt, the Elder(1757-61)Favored empireWon Seven Years WarRobert Walpole(1721-42)Handled ParliamentDispensed PatronagePeaceful Foreign PolicyLow Taxes William Pitt, the Younger(1783-1806)Maintains Patronage systemFrench Rev & Nap.Deals with George IIIs insanity

  • Partition of PolandRivalry between Austria/Prussia/RussiaFirst Partition (1772)Second Partition (1793)Third Partition (1795)

    Prussia (West Prussia)Russia (E. Poland)Austria (Galicia)

  • Austria: Maria TeresaWar of Austrian SuccessionPragmatic SanctionPrussia gains SilesiaCentralizes tax collection10 royal districtsModernizes militaryVery Catholic, not open to social reformsMaria Teresa, 1740-1780

  • Austria: Joseph IIPhilosophy = lawmaker of my empire6,000 decrees/11,000 lawsAbolished serfdomFree tradeNo death penaltyEquality of all in lawComplete religious tolerationRestrictions on Catholic ChurchPatronizes arts, music (Mozart)

    Alienates upper classes, Church, ethnic minoritiesJoseph II, 1780-90

  • Prussia: Frederick II (The Great)Highly educatedFriend of VoltaireKing = First Servant of StateLimits on tortureSome freedom of speech/pressComplete religious tolerationBUT only goes so farMaintains serfdomStrengthens Junker classMilitaristicFrederick II, 1740-86

  • Catherine the GreatWell-educatedPatron of Arts & LiteratureFriend of Voltaire, DiderotInstruction (1767)Questioned serfdomQuestioned torture/capital punishmentAdvocated equality in law

    All talk. . . No action!Catherine II, 1762-96

  • Catherine the Great (cont.)Strengthened boyars50 districts controlled by noblesCharter of the Nobility (1785)Pugachevs Rebellion (1774)repression of peasantryExpands territoryWest (Poland)South (Crimea, Black Sea)Emelian Pugachev

  • Red = Russia (c. 1650)Green = acquisitions of Peter the GreatPurple = acquisitions of Catherine the Great

  • Miscellaneous NationsSweden: Gustavus III (1771-92)reasserted power of monarchyenlightened reformsSpain--Bourbon administrative reformsPortugalMarquis de Pombal (1699-1782)Limited power of nobles and ChurchNetherlands--domination of politics by oligarchs and House of Orange

  • Final EvaluationHow enlightened were enlightened despots?Which went the furthest?What were they most concerned with?What limits on reform existed in these states?