Enlightened Absolutism V2007

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SlideCast for AP European History students at Eastview High School

Transcript of Enlightened Absolutism V2007

  • 1.Enlightened Absolutism AP European History Eastview High School Chapter 18 Toward a New World-View Section 3 Enlightened Absolutism McKay, et al. 8 thedition

2. Essential Question

  • How did the Enlightenment influence political developments of 18 thcentury Europe?

3. The Enlightenment and Absolutism

  • A. Many philosophes believed that enlightened reform would come by way of enlightened monarchs.
    • 1.The philosophes believed that a benevolent absolutism offered the best chance for improving society.
    • 2.The rulers seemed to seek the philosophes advice.
    • 3.The philosophes distrusted the masses and felt that change had to come from above.

4. Frederick the Great of Prussia aka Frederick II (r. 1740-1786)

  • Frederick allowed religious freedom and promoted education, legal reform and economic growth but never tried to change Prussias social structure.

5. War of Austrian Succession(1740-1748)

  • Frederick II used the War of the Austrian Succession (17401748) to expand Prussia into a great power by seizing Silesia.

6. Frederick the Great of Prussia aka Frederick II (r. 1740-1786)

  • The Seven Years War (17561763) saw an attempt by Maria Theresa, with the help of France and Russia, to regain Silesia, but it failed.

7. The Seven Years War(1756-1763)

  • The Importance of the War The Seven Years War, or the French and Indian War in North America, had a great impact on world history in several ways:
  • 1) Britain conquered Canada. The American colonists no longer needed protection from Britain, andthe attempt by Parliament to tax the colonists to help pay for the war sparked the American Revolution.
  • 2) France and Spain embarked upon a major naval buildup, made possible by the retention by France of fishing rights off the Canadian coast. Stronger Bourbon navies made possible the American victory in the Revolutionary War.
  • 3) The debts France incurred in this war and later in the American Revolution helped cause the French Revolution. The humiliation of the army led to reforms and innovations which were later used with great success by Napoleon.
  • 4) Prussia survived the war and retained Silesia despite enormous odds and confirmed its place as an important European power.
  • 5) Russia showed itself to be a major power capable of enormous influence. It gained greater influence in Poland, and this would eventually lead to its partition.
  • 6) By its lack of participation, The Netherlands showed itself to be in relative decline. Smaller states like The Netherlands and Saxony were becoming increasingly vulnerable. Despite its glorious past, Spain confirmed that it was a weak client state of France with minimal military power.
  • 7) Britain confirmed itself as the world's dominant naval and economic power and a force to be reckoned with in the European balance of power. Britain became the dominant European power in India enabling it to eventually conquer all of India and used its resources to further expand the empire. Some non-"Eurocentric" historians believe British control of India made the Industrial Revolution possible.

8. Catherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762-1796)

  • Catherines mother is related to the Romanov family of Russia.Catherine deposes her husband to take the Russian throne.

9. Catherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762-1796)

  • Catherine II imported Western culture to Russia, supported the philosophes, and began a program of domestic reform.

10. The Pugachev Rebellion(1773)

  • The Pugachev uprising in 1773 led her to reverse the trend toward reform of serfdom and give nobles absolute control of their serfs.

11. Catherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762-1796)

  • She engaged in a policy of territorial expansion and, with Prussia and Austria, carved up Poland.

12. The Austrian Habsburgs (rulers of the mid-late 18 thcentury)

  • Maria-Theresa of Austria at age 15
  • Joseph II of Austria and his younger brother and successor, Leopold II

13. Maria Theresa of Austria (r. 1740-1780)

  • Maria Theresa of Austria introduced reforms that limited church power, revised the tax system and the bureaucracy, and reduced the power of the lords over the serfs.

14. Joseph II of Austria (r. 1780-1790)

  • Maria Theresas son and successor, Joseph II, was a dedicated reformer who abolished serfdom, taxed all equally, and granted religious freedom.
  • Because of opposition from both the nobles and the peasants, Josephs reforms were short-lived.

15. Absolutism in France Louis of Bourbon (r. 1715-1723)

  • Some philosophes, such as Voltaire, believed that the monarchy was the best system, while some of the aristocracy sought to limit the kings power.
  • Favored by the duke of Orleans, who governed as a regent until 1723, the French nobility regained much of the power it had lost under Louis XIV.
    • a.The Parlement of Paris won two decisive victories against taxation.
    • b.It then asserted that the king could not levy taxes without its consent.

16. Louis XV of France (r. 1723-1774)

  • His regent (Duke of Orleans) ruled for him from 1715-1723.
  • Under Louis XV the French minister Maupeou began the restoration of royal absolutism by abolishing the Parlement of Paris.

17. Louis XVI of France (r. 1774-1792)

  • Louis XVI reinstated the Parlement of Paris, and the country drifted toward renewed financial and political crises.

18. An overall evaluation of absolutism and the influence of the Enlightenment

  • In France, the rise of judicial and aristocratic opposition combined with liberalism put absolutism on the defensive.
  • In Eastern Europe the results of enlightened absolutism were modest and absolutism remained strong.
  • By combining state building with the culture and critical thinking of the Enlightenment, absolute monarchs succeeded in expanding the role of the state in the life of society.

19. Questions to assess your understanding

  • What was Voltaires general attitude toward government?
  • Which countries participated in the partitioning of Poland?
  • What were the primary accomplishments of Frederick II?
  • What were the enlightened policies of Frederick II?
  • How does Catherine the Great come to power in Russia?
  • How does Catherine respond to the Pugachev rebellion?
  • How does Maria Theresa attempt to improve the lives of peasants?
  • What was the outcome of Joseph IIs abolishing of serfdom?
  • How did the French parlement respond to the death of Louis XIV?
  • What was the Parlement of Paris?
  • How did France respond financially to the War of Austrian Succession?
  • What factors played a role in the erosion of absolutism in France?

20. Essential Question

  • How did the Enlightenment influence political developments of 18 thcentury Europe?