English teaching strategies

of 49 /49
Tailoring Best Practices to Teach English Learners Idaho State Board of Education © 2006 Facilitator: Rachel Lagunoff Sr. Research Associate, WestEd [email protected]

description

 

Transcript of English teaching strategies

Page 1: English teaching strategies

Tailoring Best Practices to Teach English Learners

Idaho State Board of Education

© 2006

Facilitator:Rachel LagunoffSr. Research Associate, [email protected]

Page 2: English teaching strategies

Workshop Targets

1. Foundational concepts of English language development

2. Universal Access – right of every student to learn; requires differentiated instruction

• ELD levels

3. Research findings on educating ELs4. Effective strategies to teach vocabulary5. Effective scaffolding strategies to teach

subject area content

Page 3: English teaching strategies

KWL Chart

What We KNOW What we WANT to know

Page 4: English teaching strategies

Key Terms• EL = English learner whose native language is not

English

• LEP = Limited English Proficient– English learners receiving services

• L2 = second (another) language learned

• L1 = “home language,” first language learned

• ELD = English Language Development

• SIOP = Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol

• SDAIE = Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English– Strategies that help ELs comprehend subject content

Page 5: English teaching strategies

BICS & CALP• BICS = Basic Interpersonal Communication

Skills– Informal, social conversation– Up to 3 years for full competency

• CALP = Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency– Discourse to learn/communicate in a discipline– 5-7 years for competency

• Misconception – ELs have a language deficit

• Misconception – BICS must be developed before CALP

XX

Page 6: English teaching strategies

L1-L2, BICS-CALP, Situations

L1

L2

Friendfriend

Childparent

Studentteacher

Childadult

Studentstudent

Oral Literacy

Frame of Reference

BICS

Studenttext

CALP

Page 7: English teaching strategies

Academic Language

The discourse used in academic, professional and technical contexts that is characterized by its high level and often discipline-specific vocabulary and rhetorical styles.

- Mary Schleppegrell

Page 8: English teaching strategies

Students’ Academic Language

(Guadalupe Valdés)

1. Language valued at school2. Understand explanations (E) &

presentations (P) of– classroom/school rules, routines,

procedures– subject matter information

3. Ask and answer questions about E & P

4. Understand & participate in class discussions

Page 9: English teaching strategies

Academic Language

5. Understand texts and materials6. Complete projects & written

assignments based on E and text materials

7. Demonstrate learning through– Oral presentations– Written examinations

Page 10: English teaching strategies

ISBOE & LEP Program

• 18,000 LEP May 2006 from > 90 countries; refugees & immigrants– 80% Hispanic, 31% migrant

• Projected increase of 2,000 each year• ELD standards adopted August 2006• IELA under construction• Information, resources

– http://www.boardofed.idaho.gov/lep

Page 11: English teaching strategies

Training & Keeping High Quality Teachers

• Half of all teachers leave the profession within 5 years

• Two reasons teachers give for leaving:

– Isolation from colleagues – Discouragement - initial excitement

followed by frustration

• It takes 5-7 years for a novice teacher to reach expert level as a professional teacher

Page 12: English teaching strategies

Immigrant Acculturation• Read The Acculturation Process that

applies to immigrants and refugees– Acculturation = integrating new and old

cultures• New teachers and English learners

both must adjust to the school culture – attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, language, relationships…

• Compare and contrast your acculturation as a teacher and that of your English learners.

Page 13: English teaching strategies

Teacher & Immigrant Student Acculturation

Think-Pair-Share• Think: about your personal experiences

- 1 minute• Pair: share with 1 person next to you –

2-3 minutes• Share: table group create a double

bubble poster– feelings, issues, factors

Page 14: English teaching strategies

Double Bubble: Compare & Contrast Acculturation of

Teachers & ELs

TeacherStudent

same

unique

unique

Page 15: English teaching strategies

THEME: Universal Access to All Core Content Areas & Standards

Diverse Learners

Diverse ways to learn and show what they learned

Page 16: English teaching strategies

There is nothing as unequal as the equal

treatment of unequals

Oliver Wendell HolmesU.S. Supreme Court Justice

Unequal = diverse learners

Page 17: English teaching strategies

Universal Access is about

Comprehensible Input

People acquire language

when they receive oral & written

messages they understand

-Krashen

i + 1input plus

Hands-on

activities

Meaningful &

challenging

Visuals &

realia

Low affective

filter

Interactive communicati

onAdapted from San Joaquin COE, CA

Page 18: English teaching strategies

5 ELD Levels• 5 levels K-12 that reflect major steps

in learning English as a second language

• Idaho’s labels for 5 levels:– Fluent– Early Fluent– Intermediate– Advanced Beginning– Beginning

Page 19: English teaching strategies

ELD

Standards

LA &Content

StandardsR

each

P

rofi

cien

cy

Sca

ffo

ldC

on

cep

ts

Early Fluent

Intermediate

AdvancedBeginning

Beginning

Fluent

Page 20: English teaching strategies

8 Tips to Teaching ELs

1. Maintain routines for directions2. Modify speech

– Add gestures & visual images – Avoid or teach idioms– Highlight key

words/phrases/terms

3. Connect to students’ knowledge, lives & interests

– Activate prior knowledge

Page 21: English teaching strategies

8 Tips to Teaching ELs4. Identify & teach key words new to

ELs5. Repeat, rephrase key ideas6. Use Corrective Feedback to clarify

meaning, model English grammar

Page 22: English teaching strategies

8 Tips to Teaching ELs

7. Modify the use of the textbook• Select most important parts of text• Read text aloud, think aloud; small groups read• Read text as culminating activity• Alternative: texts at different readability levels

• Brief text with illustrations/pictures

Page 23: English teaching strategies

8 Tips to Teaching ELs

8. Check for understanding frequently– NOT “Do you understand?”– Have students demonstrate

understanding

Adapted from NWREL: Strategies & Resources for Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners, 2003

Page 24: English teaching strategies

Variation among English Learners

• Background: prior formal education, 1st language similarity to English, parental support/motivation, trauma before and now

• Culture: gender roles, beliefs, ways of thinking

Page 25: English teaching strategies

Variation among English Learners

• Personal: aspirations, personality, resiliency, interests, learning modalities, special education disabilities

• School Experiences: respect for child & parents & culture, caring environment, high expectations, quality of classroom instruction, quality of school program

Page 26: English teaching strategies

Research Findings

• Educating English Language Learners: A Synthesis of Research Evidence

• Fred Genesee, K. Lindhom-Leary, W. Saunders, & D. Christian

• Cambridge University Press, 2006

Page 27: English teaching strategies

Research: Academic Achievement

1. Bilingually educated students (late exit, 2-way) as successful or more so than their comparison peers; time learning L1 does not deter L2

2. Immigrant ELs with strong formal schooling in home country more likely to close gap with non-EL students

3. ELs in hodgepodge of programs or no intervention perform at lowest levels & have highest drop-out rates

pp. 200-204

Page 28: English teaching strategies

Research: Oral Language

1. Academic use of language from the start• ELs at beginning level in 1st grade can articulate

word meanings (simple associations & definitions)

2. Exposure to English speakers is not as important as use of exposure & interactions

– Design of interactive activities, training of non-ELs, language proficiency of ELs

3. Use of English in school more important than outside, not impeded by L1 development/use

pp. 39-41

Page 29: English teaching strategies

Research: Literacy

1. ELs use L1 to draw on prior knowledge & experience, regardless of L2 proficiency, during L2 literacy task

2. L1 literacy contributes to L2 literacy development

• ELs with well-developed L1 literacy progress more quickly & successfully

pp. 82-83

Page 30: English teaching strategies

Research: Instruction on Reading & Writing

1. Most effective when direct and interactive instruction are combined

2. ELs more likely to succeed at English literacy if they have had enriched L1 or L2 literacy skills prior to school entry

pp. 139-143

Page 31: English teaching strategies

Interactive Instruction

• Authentic, meaningful activities

• Orally sharing thoughts & reflections with others

• Carefully planned, modeled, guided, monitored

• With teacher, among students

pp. 139-143

Page 32: English teaching strategies

3 Modes of Instruction• Teacher-directed

– directs instruction to whole class; teacher-student interactions

• Teacher-assisted– guides whole class discussion; student-

student and teacher-student interactions

• Peer-assisted– monitors small group conversations;

student-student interactions

Page 33: English teaching strategies

Reflection: Research Findings

• Reflect on 1 topic: – Academic achievement– Oral language– Literacy– Instruction on reading/writing

• Why did the findings surprise you or not?

• How have or will you apply these findings in your classroom/school/district?

Page 34: English teaching strategies

Heads Together

For your assigned topic:1. Identify a recorder/reporter and a

facilitator/timekeeper2. Lean toward table center3. Discuss 2 questions

1. Findings surprise you or not?2. How have you/will you apply at your

site?

4. Sit back to signify end of discussion5. Table reporters share whole group

Page 35: English teaching strategies

6 Steps for Teaching Vocabulary

1. Identify key words for all students2. Identify key words for ELs3. Select highest priority words4. Choose up to 10 words for day’s

lesson5. Build from informal to formal

understanding6. Plan many opportunities to apply

Page 36: English teaching strategies

Vocabulary Tools

• Word wall, glossary - enhanced

• Sentence frames• Concept organizer• Word form chart• Vocabulary self-rating form

Page 37: English teaching strategies

Constructive Learning: Building Vocabulary

• Select a text, identify key words• Select tools for teaching words• Adjust to fit ELD levels• Create mini-lesson to show:

– Integration of tools– When vocabulary words & reading

text introduced• Front-loading vs. during activity

– Varied, frequent opportunities to practice

Page 38: English teaching strategies

4 Instructional Strategies to Scaffold Learning

1. Visuals – graphic organizers2. KWL+3. Think-Pair-Share4. Summarizing

Page 39: English teaching strategies

Circle MapFor Defining in Context        

Page 40: English teaching strategies

Tree MapFor Classifying and Grouping            

Page 41: English teaching strategies

Bubble MapFor Describing with Adjectives

Page 42: English teaching strategies

Double Bubble MapFor Comparing and Contrasting   

Page 43: English teaching strategies

Flow MapFor Sequencing and Ordering    

Page 44: English teaching strategies

Multi-Flow MapFor Analyzing Causes and Effects

Page 45: English teaching strategies

Brace MapFor Identifying Part/Whole Relationships

Page 46: English teaching strategies

Bridge MapFor Seeing Analogies

dadson

uncle

nephew grandm

a

grandson

Tony is

Page 47: English teaching strategies

Constructive Learning: Building Understanding

• Blend 4 instructional strategies into a mini-lesson to give ELs universal access to the important concepts in the lesson– Prior vocabulary lesson is part of

this whole lesson– Blend tools for vocabulary building

with strategies to scaffold learning difficult, complex concepts

Page 48: English teaching strategies

Reflection & Action

How might you present PD in your school/district on the two pieces:– Strategies to build academic vocabulary – Strategies to scaffold rigorous concepts

so all teachers understand and use strategies to give English learners universal access across subject areas?

Page 49: English teaching strategies

Some Resources• http://www.boardofed.idaho.gov/lep• Making Science Accessible to English Learners: A

Guidebook for Teachers (Carr, Sexton, Lagunoff – WestEd)

• Classroom Instruction that Works (Marzano et al - ASCD)

Differentiated Instruction• The Differentiated Classroom (Carol Ann Tomlinson, www.ascd.org)• So Each May Learn (Silver, Strong, Perini - ASCD)• Differentiated Instructional Strategies (Gregory & Chapman - Corwin)• Educating Everybody’s Children (Cole (Ed.) - ASCD)

Graphic Organizers• www.thinkingmaps.com

• The Big Book of Reproducible Graphic Organizers (Scholastic)

• www.inspiration.com & www.kidspiration.com