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  • Folk Music Traditional English Music in the 20th century - revivals
  • Suggested Readings ! Broughton S, Ellington, M and Trillo, R (eds.), World Music, The Rough Guide, vol 1, Africa, Europe and the Middle East (London,1999) ! Cohen, Ronald, Folk Music, the Basics (London, 2006) ! Lifton, Sarah, The Listeners Guide to Folk Music (New York, 1983) ! Lomax, Alan, Folk Song Style and Culture (New Brunswick, 1994) ! Rob Young, Electric Eden, (2010) ! Garland Series on particular area
  • Questions ! What is it that constitutes folk music? ! Are there basic similarities across the geographical areas? ! How and why is it performed? ! How are traditions changing? ! What is the future? ! Connections with popular music and art music.
  • Folk? ! By and for the people - Fortune my Foe Vernacular traditions ! Not composed but organically generated through usage and changing over time ! Sense of place, identity and cultural belonging national traditions ! Functional concerns dancing, ballads, lullabies, etc - - Playfords Dances
  • Ravenscroft and Playford 1652
  • Big Area of Study ! One of the main branches of ethnomusicology ! Of great interest in early part of 20th century for composers of art music Bartok, Kodaly, Grainger, Grieg etc all collectors of folk music ! In Britain part played by Cecil Sharp and the English folk song and dance society ! Influence of art music composers Vaughan Williams, Holst, Grainger, Butterworth, Moeran, etc - Berio - Black Black Black
  • And Now ! Seen by many as old fashioned, boring, stayed its role increasingly subsumed by pop music and pop culture kids know pop songs and no folk songs ! In period before and after war there was considerable emphasis on promoting folk song and dance in schools radio programmes, recorders, singing together largely gone ! Folk clubs and revival in 1950s and 60s Folk and Skiffle folks greatest moment.
  • Revivals ! There are many influences on folk music and there have been several revivals ! 1. Big one in the 1900-30s based on dance and song collecting. Strong connections with art music work of Grainger, Holst, Butterworth, Peter Warlock and Vaughan Williams. ! 2. Period after the war of source singers and purists. ! 3. From 60s new generations with new approaches, new songs and connections
  • 19th Century ! Folk music collectors especially in Scotland and Ireland Robert Burns, Johnson, William Stenhouse, John Glen. ! William Chappells English Music of Olden Times. ! Expansion of industrial working class largely ignored. ! Brass Bands and singing clubs
  • Copper family
  • Cecil Sharpe ! In 1899 Cecil Sharp by chance saw the Headington Morris Men outside the Masons Arms in Headington Oxford. ! Started his interest in Folk Dance and then song. ! 1900-1930 age of folk collectors Sharp, Carpales, Grainger, Kennedy. ! English Folk Song and Dance Society. ! Folk Dance into schools. Problems after Sharps death. 1930s.
  • Headington Morris Today
  • English Folk and Folk Clubs ! Generation of 50s A. L. Lloyd, Ewan McColl, Peegy Seeger, etc ! Source Singers, Harry Cox, Copper family, ! Revival singers Martin Carthy, Nic Jones, June Tabor - How Pleasant and Delightful - Ian Giles
  • A. L. Lloyd All for me grog 1961
  • Instruments ! Violin ! Concertina ! Accordion ! Pipe and Tabor ! Piano ! (not the guitar which was rare before the mid 1950s and came from American)
  • 1950s ! Influence of Alan Lomax, Peggy Seeger and Ewan McColl. Work of Duncan and Peter Kennedy. ! Gritty industrial folk music. ! Only allowing performers to play music at folk clubs which was native to them. ! Political and engaged. ! Lead by McColl ! Folk Clubs throughout Engand.
  • Ewan McColl
  • Early Sixties ! New Younger Generation of folk artists from America. ! Often with radical political views and new songs ! Festivals in America had become quite big and it was more professionalised. ! Some on the edge of commercialism ! E.g. Peter Paul and Mary ! Case of Bob Dylan
  • Instrumentalists ! Instrumentalists of 60s and 70s Jansch, Swarbrick, Renbourn, John Martyn (play excerpt) ! Electric Bands Steeleye Span, Watersons, Albion Band, Fairport Convention etc. ! Explosion of interests in folk that was fused with early music, electric rock, even Jazz and African music.
  • Steeleye Span 1976
  • Where are they now ! Essentially they are still around and still record and perform but as a minority genre within a much bigger pool. ! Many groups have become electrified ! Others have fused with musicians of other traditions some stayed ultra regionalist ! Folk Clubs still exist but again have had to make room for all sorts of other music clubs (rave, garage, blues. Etc) ! Many big festivals like pop festivals e.g. Glastonbury
  • New Generation ! In the last few years a new generation of artists have begun to create a new fusion of traditional music and newly composed music in a folk idiom. ! E.g. Catherine Tickell, ! Using amplified acoustic instruments they address and attract a young audience. ! Often a younger generation of the Fairport convention/Steelye Span groups.
  • Kathryn Tickell
  • Celtic Traditions ! British Isles Scotland (Tweedside), Ireland and Wales all have their own regional traditions as do the English regions. ! Continent French folk traditions based on concept of regionalism ! Britanny especially but also south and massive central importance of specific instruments, regional dialects and dance forms ! Irish - modelled on The Chieftains - Folk Road
  • Elsewhere ! Tenors of Sardinia, Lanedas of Sicily ! Difference between Northern and Southern Europe ! However big pan European similarities in dance forms, ballad styles, modal tunes and instrument types.