Engaging Students Through Active and Cooperative Learning

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Engaging Students Through Active and Cooperative Learning. Karl A. Smith Engineering Education – Purdue University Civil Engineering - University of Minnesota [email protected] http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith Creating Citizen Engineers through Infrastructure Awareness – NSF – DLR Project - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Engaging Students Through Active and Cooperative LearningKarl A. SmithEngineering Education Purdue UniversityCivil Engineering - University of [email protected]://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith

    Creating Citizen Engineers through Infrastructure Awareness NSF DLR ProjectFaculty Workshop College of EngineeringUniversity of Wisconsin - PlattevilleAugust 2006

  • Lila M. Smith

  • Pedago-pathologiesAmnesia

    Fantasia

    Inertia

    Lee Shulman MSU Med School PBL Approach (late 60s early 70s), Currently President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of College Teaching

    Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.

  • What do we do about these pathologies? Lee Shulman Activity Reflection Collaboration PassionCombined with generative content and the creation of powerful learning communities

    Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.

  • Formulate-Share-Listen-Create (Think-Pair-Share)Individually read the quote To teach is to engage students in learning. . .Underline/Highlight words and/or phrases that stand out for youTurn to the person next to you and talk about words and/or phrases that stood out

  • To teach is to engage students in learning; thus teaching consists of getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge. . .The aim of teaching is not only to transmit information, but also to transform students from passive recipients of other people's knowledge into active constructors of their own and others' knowledge. . .Teaching is fundamentally about creating the pedagogical, social, and ethical conditions under which students agree to take charge of their own learning, individually and collectively

    Education for judgment: The artistry of discussion leadership. Edited by C. Roland Christensen, David A. Garvin, and Ann Sweet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School, 1991.

  • Lila M. Smith

  • Pedagogies of Engagement

  • Active/Cooperative Learning, Learning CommunitySuccess Story

    Reflect on and Talk about your Active/Cooperative Learning, Learning Community Success(es)1.Context?2.Structure/Procedure?3.Outcome?

  • Key Features of Cooperative Learning

    Active/InteractiveCooperativePersonal (before professional)Structure (before task)Knee-to-Knee, Eye-to-Eye/Space/FocusChallenging task (worthy of group effort)Students talking through the material (cognitive rehearsal)Learning groups are small (2-5) and assignedHeterogeneousYour own cooperative group

  • Cooperative Learning Task GroupsPerkins, David. 2003. King Arthur's RoundTable: How collaborative conversations createsmart organizations. NY: Wiley.

  • Backdrop Recent ReportsNational Research Council Reports:How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (1999).How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice (2000).Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment (2001).The Knowledge Economy and Postsecondary Education (2002). Chapter 6 Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn

  • Designing Learning Environments Based on HPL (How People Learn)

  • Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom

    Informal Cooperative Learning GroupsFormal Cooperative Learning GroupsCooperative Base GroupsSee Cooperative Learning Handout (CL College-804.doc)

  • Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves people working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that involve both positive interdependence (all members must cooperate to complete the task) and individual and group accountability (each member is accountable for the complete final outcome).

    Key ConceptsPositive InterdependenceIndividual and Group AccountabilityFace-to-Face Promotive InteractionTeamwork SkillsGroup Processing

  • Individual & Group Accountability?

  • http://clte.asu.edu/active

  • Robert Barr & John Tagg. From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change, 27(6), 1995.

    Wm. Campbell & Karl Smith. New Paradigms for College Teaching. Interaction Books, 1997.

  • New ParadigmDefining educational objectives, facilitating development of critical and creative thinking and problem-solving skillsActive learning (individual and group activities in class)Structured cooperative learning (including multidisciplinary teamwork and facilitating development of written and oral communication skills)Writing and (multidisciplinary) design across the curriculumInquiry and discovery learning (problem-based, case- based)Teaching to diversity (different learning styles, ethnicities, genders)Appropriate use of technology (tools, simulation, exploration)

  • Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology National Science Foundation, 1996Goal B All students have access to supportive, excellent undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry.

    Recommend that SME&T faculty: Believe and affirm that every student can learn, and model good practices that increase learning; starting with the student=s experience, but have high expectations within a supportive climate; and build inquiry, a sense of wonder and the excitement of discovery, plus communication and teamwork, critical thinking, and life-long learning skills into learning experiences.

  • Tracking Change - Seymour

    "The greatest single challenge to SMET pedagogical reform remains the problem of whether and how large classes can be infused with more active and interactive learning methods."

    Seymour, Elaine. 2001. Tracking the processes of change in US undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. Science Education, 86, 79-105.

  • Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom

    Informal Cooperative Learning GroupsFormal Cooperative Learning GroupsCooperative Base GroupsSee Cooperative Learning Handout (CL College-804.doc)

  • Book Ends on a Class Session

  • Book Ends on a Class Session

    Advance OrganizerFormulate-Share-Listen-Create (Turn-to-your-neighbor) -- repeated every 10-12 minutesSession Summary (Minute Paper)What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session?What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session?What was the muddiest point in this session?

  • Advance OrganizerThe most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him [email protected]

    David Ausubel - Educational psychology: A cognitive approach, 1968.

  • Quick Thinks Reorder the stepsParaphrase the ideaCorrect the errorSupport a statementSelect the response

    Johnston, S. & Cooper,J. 1997. Quick thinks: Active- thinking in lecture classes and televised instruction. Cooperative learning and college teaching, 8(1), 2-7.

  • Formulate-Share-Listen-Create

    Informal Cooperative Learning GroupIntroductory Pair Discussion of a

    FOCUS QUESTION

    Formulate your response to the question individuallyShare your answer with a partnerListen carefully to your partner's answerWork together to Create a new answer through discussion

  • Minute PaperWhat was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session?What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session?What was the muddiest point in this session?Give an example or applicationExplain in your own words . . .

    Angelo, T.A. & Cross, K.P. 1993. Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

  • Q4 Pace: Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fastQ5 Relevance: Little 1 . . . 5 LotsQ6 Format: Ugh 1 . . . 5 AhMSU May 15, 2006 Session 1 (am)

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  • Informal CL (Book Ends on a Class Session) with Concept TestsPhysics Peer InstructionEric Mazur - Harvard B http://galileo.harvard.eduPeer Instruction www.prenhall.comRichard Hake http://www.physics.indiana.edu/~hake/

    Chemistry Chemistry ConcepTests - UW Madison B www.chem.wisc.edu/~conceptVideo: Making Lectures Interactive with ConcepTestsModularChem Consortium B http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/

    STEMTECVideo: How Change Happens: Breaking the ATeach as You Were [email protected] Cycle B Films for the Humanities & Sciences B www.films.com

    HarvardThinking Together & From Questions to Concepts Interactive Teaching in Physics: Derek Bok Center B www.fas.harvard.edu/~bok_cen/

  • Richard Hake (Interactive engagement vs traditional methods) http://www.physics.indiana.edu/~hake/Traditional (lecture)Interactive (active/cooperative) = Concept Inventory Gain/Total

  • The Hake Plot of FCIPretest (Percent)0.005.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.0070.0080.00ALSSDIWPPI(HU)ASU(nc)ASU(c)HUWP*

  • Physics (Mechanics) Concepts:The Force Concept Inventory (FCI)A 30 item multiple choice test to probe student's understanding of basic concepts in mechanics.The choice of topics is based on careful thought about what the fundamental issues and concepts are in Newtonian dynamics.Uses common speech rather than cueing specific physics principles. The distractors (wr